HYDRO Nepal Journal – Issue 7(July 2010)

Table of Contents
Editorial PDF Pages
Vicious circle in power sector
View PDF 1
Articles Authors PDF Pages
Total Run-of-River type Hydropower Potential of Nepal

The total hydropower potential of Nepal was assessed as 83,500 MW in 1966 by Dr. Hari Man Shrestha dur-ing his PhD research work in former USSR. Since then, no further study has been done in this field. The hydropower potential estimate has been used by Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA), Water and Energy Commission Secretariat (WECS) and Department of Electricity Development (DOED) for power development, licensing and policy making. However, keeping in view recent advancements in computer technology that offer many benefits to the field of water resources and the importance of power estimation in Nepal, Dr. Shrestha’s estimate needs further review and updat¬ing. The present study has mainly used the hydro-meteorological data of Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DHM) for hydrological analysis of all the rivers in Nepal including the three big rivers, viz., Saptakoshi, Narayani and Karnali, and other medium and small rivers. Incorporating GIS and the Hydropower Model that has specifically been developed by the author, the power potential and annual energy estimate on an run-of-the-river (ROR) basis of the entire country has been worked out. The result shows that the power potential and annual energy estimates of Na¬rayani, Saptakoshi and Karnali River basins at Q40% (flow exceedence) and 80% efficiency are 17800, 17008, 15661 MW and 113373, 108817, 102324 GWh, respectively. The Mahakali River would yield only 2262 MW of hydropower and 14981 GWh of energy annually. The other water sources in Nepal would have a total power potential of 1105 MW and a combined annual energy of 7043 GWh. Thus, the total hydropower potential and corresponding annual energy capacity of Nepal on a ROR basis at Q40%, and 80% efficiency is 53,836 MW and 346538 GWh, respectively.

Keywords: Hydropower potential, Run-of- River (ROR), GIS, Hydropower Model, Nepal

Raghunath Jha View PDF 8-13
Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project and Hydropower Development in Laos

Hydropower development and exporting electricity to neighbouring countries is a success story in Laos. Several projects are under construction and some projects are already exporting electricity. The Nam Theun 2 Hydro¬power Project (1000MW+86MW) started commercial operation on 15 March 2010. This project is exporting electricity to Thailand which is part of the MOU signed between Governments of Thailand and Laos for exporting 7000 MW to Thailand. In almost all projects, the Govt. of Laos is also a share holder.

Keywords: Hydropower development, cross border electricity export, Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project, Laos

Xaypaseuth PHOMSOUPHA View PDF 14-16
Water and Hydro Power

Water is life and energy, basic human needs. The water supply and hydropower demand scenario for India for the year 2025 shows that 90% of the area of the country falls under the Physical Water Scarcity Group. While 500kWh/year per capita energy consumption is considered to be the minimum needed to ensure a quality of life, many developing countries consume less than 76 kWh/year. Hydropower is renewable clean energy and needs to be fully exploited. In Asia and Africa, there is a great opportunity for regional cooperation in development of water resources and hydropower with which to benefit cooperating countries.

Keywords: Water resources, water scarcity, regional cooperation, per capita electricity consumption, electricity pro-duction capacity, India

C.V.J. Varma View PDF 17-19
Miracle in Rajasthan: Traditional Practice of Rainwater Harvesting
Jeewan P. Thanju and Bashanta D. Shrestha View PDF  20-22
Rain Water Harvesting in Kathmandu
Jeewan P. Thanju and Bashanta D. Shrestha View PDF  24-25
Water Resources for Mutual Benefit- Nepal and India

The huge water resources including hydropower potential of Nepal may be mutually beneficial to both Nepal and India. Storage projects need to be developed to utilize the monsoon season flows to have regulated flow with mul¬tiple benefits such as irrigation, flood control, hydropower, etc. India will need an additional 200,000 MW of electricity by 2018. The cross border power trade will undoubtedly benefit both the countries. To exploit resources on mutually beneficial terms, we need to shift from “foreign policy” to “business mode,” decreasing government engagements and increasing corporate relationships. Business to business initiatives will lessen any mistrust. Furthermore, water augmentation of the Kulekhani reservoir by pumping and constructing a high dam in the Jomsom area will significantly increase electricity generation in the existing plants.

Keywords: Storage projects, flood control, regulated flow, hydropower export, India, Nepal

Gyanendra Lal Pradhan View PDF 26-29
Application of the Pitman Model to Generate Discharges for the Lhasa Basin, China

Predicting river flows in basins where limited data is available is a challenge facing many hydrologists es¬pecially in developing countries. In this study, the Pitman monthly model was applied to generate flows for the Lhasa basin in China (Tibet). As flow data was unavailable for the Lhasa basin, the model was first calibrated for the upper Koshi Basin in Nepal and China. The Pitman model successfully predicted flows for the upper Koshi basin (R2 =0.88). Therefore, the estimated model parameters from the Koshi basin as well as climate data from the Lhasa basin were used to generate flows for the Lhasa basin outlet. The main modeling assumption is that the basin characteristics of the upper Koshi are similar to that of the Lhasa basin. Under present circumstances, where measured data is unavail¬able, the model estimated monthly flows for the Lhasa basin can be used in further studies in basin water accounting and management.

Keywords: Un-gauged basins, Pitman monthly model, stream flow generation, Lhasa basin (Tibet), Koshi basin (Nepal)

Luna Bharati / Nilantha Gamage View PDF  30-34
Water Storage for Food Security in Nepal

Increasing trend of water scarcity for drinking, irrigation, hydropower generation and other purposes has been a serious challenge for Nepal. As food need rises, the country’s reliance on irrigated agriculture increases. The existing run-of-river types of irrigation systems provide little leverage in providing adequate, timely and equitable wa¬ter supply to the farmers’ fields. With the approval of the 2002 Water Resources Strategy, the country is in the process of changing its water development paradigm from sectoral to integrated water resource management. In this context, intensification of agriculture is the most viable option of achieving food security and this requires assured supply of irrigation water which is possible mainly through water storage systems.

Keywords: Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), irrigation, water storage, agriculture intensification, Nepal

Khem Raj Sharma View PDF  35-37
Design of Mini Grid for SHP Plants

The supply of power to remote rural areas in India from Small Hydropower Projects (SHP)/renewable en-ergy power projects in cost effective and sustainable manner requires the optimum design of mini-grids. The present paper deals with the design of mini grids of nine SHP plants presently running in isolated mode only for 8 hrs/day wasting the energy of 16 hrs/day. Based on system layouts, transmission routing, line length and selection of conduc¬tor, 5 different alternates of mini-grids were developed to connect these SHPs together as well as with the nearby 33 kV grid substations located at approximately 15, 17 and 9 km from nearby SHPs in order to improve the load factor. The optimization of these alternates on the basis of the Break Even Point (BEP) has indicated that Alternate-V has been found as optimum alternative for the study area with shortest line length, low line losses and minimum capital investment for the mini-grid implementation.

Keywords: Small Hydropower Project (SHP) station, mini-grid, remote rural areas, Break Even Point, India

S.N. Singh, M.P. Sharma and Ajit Singh View PDF  38-47
The Slaughter House Waste Management

Thousands of animals are slaughtered every year in Pakistan, but unfortunately there is no proper mecha-nism nor waste water management system to handle the effluent discharge of the slaughtering process. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the potential hazards associated with slaughter houses, by analyzing waste¬water characteristics and designing a suitable treatment system for safe effluent disposal. The results obtained indicate that the wastewater parameters of the slaughter house do not meet the requirements of the local effluent dis¬charge standards. The average wastewater characteristics in terms of COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, turbidity and pH observed were 9600mg/L, 7450 mg/L, 1650 mg/L, 2280 mg/L, 1489 NTU and 6.5, respectively. The results of plain sedimenta¬tion point out that the maximum removal efficiency of COD, BOD, TDS, TSS and turbidity at 80 minutes of detention time could be obtained as13%, 21%, 10%, 30% and 39%, respectively. Out of the three coagulants tested, the alum was tested out as the most suitable coagulant in terms of its treatability performance, which gives 80% COD removal compare to lime and magnesium sulfate that gives about 56% and 71% removal, respectively. The activated system designed consists of 12m x 7.5m x 3.5m rectangular aeration tank and 12m x 7m x 5m secondary sedimentation tank. The amount of air, power and the major nutrient (N and P) required for this system were worked out as 136m3/min, 7.8kW, 152 N-kg/day and 30 P-kg/day, respectively.

Keywords: slaughter house effluent, sedimentation, alum, activated sludge system, Pakistan

Arshad Ali, Hashim Nisar Hashmi and Habib Akber View PDF 48-53
Limnochemistry of Three Freshwater Springs of Kashmir Himalaya

The present investigation was carried out during 2005-06 on three limnocrene freshwater springs located in single groundwater area in Kokergund (Yaripora) of District Kulgam, Kashmir, India. A perusal of the data showed that these springs were hard water type with slightly lower values of dissolved oxygen (DO) (1.2-6.4mg/L). The ionic composition of the spring waters revealed the predominance of bicarbonate and calcium over the other ions with usual ionic progression as HCO3- >Ca++ >Mg++ >Na+ >K+. None of the parameters studied floated the standards set by WHO for drinking water quality. However, relatively higher values of NO3-N (2500-3900μg/L), but well within the per¬missible limits of WHO, were observed. The dissolved silica did not show any temporal variation between the different months but exhibited slight spatial variations (17.8-21mg/L).

Keywords: limnochemistry, water quality, groundwater, Kashmir Himalaya

Sami Ullah Bhat and Ashok K. Pandit View PDF 54-59
Derivation of Global Parametric Performance of Mixed Flow Hydraulic Turbine Using CFD

The testing of physical turbine models is costly, time consuming and subject to limitations of laboratory setup to meet International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has emerged as a powerful tool for finding numerical solutions of wide range of flow equations whose analytical solutions are not feasible. CFD also minimizes the requirement of model testing. The present work deals with simulation of 3D flow in mixed flow (Francis) turbine passage; i.e., stay vane, guide vane, runner and draft tube using ANSYS CFX 10 software for study of flow pattern within turbine space and computation of various losses and efficiency at different operating regimes. The computed values and variation of performance parameters are found to bear close comparison with experimental results.

Keywords: Hydraulic turbine, performance, computational fluid dynamics, efficiency, losses

Ruchi Khare, Vishnu Prasad and Sushil Kumar View PDF 60-64
Automobile Emission Reduction and Environmental Protection through Use of Green Renewable Fuel

Fossil fuels are the chief contributors to urban air pollution and major source of green house gases and considered the prime cause behind the global climate change. With the increasing fuel prices, the auto industry forced to make their engines to breathe cleanly and fuel efficiently. Biodiesel is a renewable diesel fuel substitute that can be made by chemically combining any natural oil or fat with an alcohol such as methanol or ethanol. Some of the well-known liquid biofuel are ethanol for gasoline engines and biodiesel for compression ignition engines or diesel engines. Biodiesel is a renewable and environmental friendly alternative diesel fuel for diesel engine. It can be produced from food grade vegetable oils or edible oils, nonfood grade vegetable oils or inedible oil, animal fats and waste or used vegetable oils, by the transesterification process. Transesterification is a chemical reaction in which vegetable oils and animal fats are reacted with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The products of reaction are fatty acid alkyl ester and glycerin, and where the fatty acid alkyl ester known as biodiesel. Biodiesel is an oxygenated fuel containing 10% to 15% oxygen by weight. Using biodiesel can help to reduce the world’s dependence on fossil fuels and has significant environmental benefits. The reasons for these environmental benefits using biodiesel instead of the conventional diesel fuel reduces exhaust emissions such as the overall life circle of carbon dioxide (CO2), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur oxides (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and unburned hydrocarbons (HC) signifi¬cantly. Furthermore, since biodiesel can be said a sulfur-free fuel, it has 99% less SOx emission than the diesel fuel. However, most of the biodiesel produce 10% to 15% higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) when fueling with 100% biodie¬sel for a cleaner air and cleaner environment. They are technically competitive with and offer technical advantages compared to petroleum-diesel fuel. Aside from being renewable and biodegradable, biodiesel reduces most emissions while engine performance and fuel economy are nearly the same as the conventional fuel. In this paper author have discussed various merits and de-merits of biodiesel on the environment used as C.I.Engine fuel.

Keywords: limnochemistry, water quality, groundwater, Kashmir Himalaya

Biodiesel, CO2 emission, global warming, emission reduction View PDF 65-70
Short Term Optimal Generation Scheduling of Narmada Cascaded Hydro Electric System

Generation scheduling of cascaded hydropower plants at same stream of river is imperative to harness river water energy in an optimal manner. Along with hydropower, multipurpose hydropower plants are also fulfilling irrigation requirement of nearby zones. Irrigation requirements from immediate plants, natural inflows from tributaries and evaporation losses between successive reservoirs affects water levels in both reservoirs and operating heads. In this paper all of the above factors are included in water continuity equations for optimization problem formulation of a real operated cascaded hydroelectric system located on the Narmada river in Madhya Pradesh, India. Time Varying Acceleration Coefficients PSO (TVAC_PSO) have been used to determine the optimal generation schedule of the above system. The results obtained are compared with Novel Self Adaptive Inertia Weight PSO (NSAIW_PSO), and are found to give a better solution.

Keywords: Hydroelectric power generation; Novel Self Adaptive Inertia Weight PSO; Linearly Decreasing Inertia Weight PSO; Time Varying Acceleration Coefficient PSO; short term generation scheduling: Narmada river, Madya Pradesh (India)

Amita Mahor and Saroj Rangnekar View PDF 71-80
Public Hearing in the EIA Process of Hydropower Development

This paper discusses the methodology for public hearings, mandatory legal provisions and their importance in the process of hydropower development. A public hearing is both a process of information sharing, discussion and negotiation, and an end result of allocating compensation and other impact mitigation activities. It is based on prin¬ciples of equity and social justice. Any development project that brings changes to the existing biological, physical, socio-economic and cultural environment should be carefully examined considering the status of the stakeholders.
A good public hearing process can strengthen private sector incentives to help government and the people to attain a nation’s hydropower development goals and, at the same time, address local opportunities and issues. A good public hearing is important for time-effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and sustainability of hydropower projects. Promises too early in the public hearing process tend to raise high expectations which, if misunderstood or unmet later on, may lead to negative consequences.
There is an urgent need to standardize public hearings in the IEE and EIA processes of hydropower projects and help proponents to conduct public hearings effectively.

Keywords: Public hearing, EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment), IEE (Initial Environmental Examination), EPA (Environmental Protection Act), EPR (Environmental Protection Rules), hydropower development, Nepal.

Bharat Mani Sharma View PDF 81-84
An Interview with Dr. Sandip Shah
Dr. Sandip Shah View PDF 92-94