HYDRO Nepal Journal – Issue 3 (July 2008)

Table of Contents
Articles Authors PDF Pages
Electricity: Domestic Consumption Versus Export

Due to its unique geography, Nepal is gifted with very high hydropower potential, far greater than generally accepted figure of 83,000 MW and 43000 MW of theoretical and techno-financial viability. Our neighbors India, Pakistan and Bangladesh are suffering from huge power shortages. There is no point in debating whether Nepal’s hydropower should be for domestic consumption or for export because the potential of generating hydropower in Nepal is far greater than its domestic consumption, even in 2050. Due to the lack of appropriate policies, however, Nepal suffers from long hours of load shedding. The government policy to subsidize petroleum products was a big mistake for, like Bhutan, electricity should have been the cheapest source of energy. Politicians are focusing mostly in export oriented projects; whereas, higher importance should have been given to projects for domestic consumption. We should aim at producing twice the needed internal demand. Nepal is poised to reap huge benefits from hydropower.

Keywords: Hydropower, domestic consumption, load shedding, export, Nepal

Gyanendra Lal Pradha View PDF 1-3
Interview with Shanker Prasad Koirala
Secretary, Ministry of Water Resources, Nepal
Shanker Prasad Koirala View PDF 1-3
Food Production: The Critical Role of Irrigation Water

As food need rises, Nepal’s reliance on irrigated agriculture does increase. Increased production to satisfy the food demand of the future must essentially come from intensification, not from expansion of agriculture. Intensification potential of irrigated agriculture is much higher than rain fed system. Technologies, professionals and farmers should go together to achieve greater impacts and ensure the country’s food security.

Keywords: Irrigated agriculture, food security, farmer participation, conjunctive use, physical infrastructure, integrated water resource management, Nepal

Khem Raj Sharma View PDF 1-3
Application of GIS and Remote Sensing for Hydropower Development in Nepal

Nepal is endowed with abundant water resources from the availability point of view. Hydropower is considered as a viable means of economic growth for the country’s overall development. The river and physiographic characteristics of Nepal offer immense possibilities for the development of hydropower schemes of different scales, and various national and international agencies have expressed keen interest. On the other hand, Nepal’s biodiversity resources, a fragile landscape, scattered settlement patterns and natural resource based rural livelihoods are directly affected by hydropower development. Use of recent information about place, people and scientific analysis is crucial for addressing the environmental and socio-economic impacts of development activities. Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) technology have the capabilities to create, update and manage recent information about the earth’s surface and its integration with socio- economic information; but these technologies have not been used properly for the hydropower development sector in Nepal. This paper is about the application of GIS and Remote sensing technology to make the hydropower development environment friendly and to create less impact upon the rural livelihood.

Keywords: GIS, Remote Sensing, hydropower, watershed management, Nepal

Mahesh Pathak View PDF 1-4
Sikkim’s Initiatives in Hydropower

Sikkim is rich in hydropower potential in spite of its small area. National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Limited (NHPC) and other private developers are entering in hydropower sector of Sikkim. Though some of local people are in the protest of dams, the Government of Sikkim is hopeful and determines to achieve benefit largely from hydropower.

Keywords: Sikkim, Himalayas, hydropower, environment

Milan Dahal View PDF 1-4
Ecological Health Risk of Buriganga River, Dhaka, Banglades

The efforts of modern civilization to create an environment to meet human aspirations have successfully resulted in constant improvements of our lifestyle, but it has increased risks to human and ecological health. This situation has motivated many scientists throughout the world to analyze the environmental factors that can affect our health or ecology and to calculate the levels of risk. In Bangladesh development activities and utilization of the river pose a great threat to the health of the existing natural environmental system, particularly for the important river Buriganga of the capital city, Dhaka, due to the pollution of the river water.
A study was carried out to observe the ecological health hazards of the Buriganga river and their risk to human health. Several random samples of water were collected from different spots on the river from September to December 2006. The samples were analyzed to determine water quality and associated environmental health risks. The study revealed that the water is high in biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phosphate (PO4 -3), ammonia, organic matters and nutrients, etc. It also revealed huge environmental health risks and possible ecological disruption of this river. Finally, the research recommends a sustainable policy framework on how the pollution could significantly be reduced by using different appropriate measures.

Keywords: Environmental health risk, ecological disruption, sustainable policy, water quality, Buriganga river, Bangladesh

Mohd. Yousuf Ali, Md. Nurul Amin and Khairul Alam View PDF 1-4
Paraguay, Bhutan and Nepal: Landlocked but Hydropower Rich
Cases of the Lame Duck, Flying Goose and Sitting Duck

Paraguay has 5.6 million people, Bhutan has 0.6 million and Nepal has 27 million, all small land locked countries with rich hydropower potential. The 12,600 MW Itaipu Project commissioned on Paraguay-Brazil border river, Parana, was the world’s largest hydropower plant until China’s Three Gorges superseded it in 2007. Paraguay’s share, half of Itaipu’s generation, is on average of about 44,000 million units annually with over 90% sold to Brazil. Nepal’s projected average annual generation from three major multipurpose projects, at Sapta Koshi, Karnali Chisapani and Pancheshwar’s 50%, totals about the same. Despite two decades of such large volume of power export, however, Paraguay remains the second poorest country in South America. Nepal, with a tiny 550 MW of hydropower capacity, is undergoing bouts of load shedding and is mired in controversies. Bhutan, with a mere export of about 1,300 MW, comprising 60% of the national revenue, has therefore been strongly recommended as the model for Nepal to replicate.
If India is to maintain her 9% GDP growth rate then she will require 785,000 MW (6 times the present installed capacity) of power by 2026/27. Along with this demand for power, she will also need huge quantities of additional freshwater. While there are options for power, there are none for water. All large or small storage projects in Nepal augment water to the rivers flowing down to India. So far India’s policy has been to obtain this augmented water through Nepal’s default. Nepal needs to seriously consider why Paraguay, despite its huge export, is a lame duck while Bhutan with a tiny export is a flying goose!

Keywords: Power export, Karnali Chisapani, Pancheshwar, Sapta Koshi, Nepal-India Water Resources negotiations, Nepal’s default, Paraguay, Bhutan

S.B. Pun View PDF 1-5
Mathematical Modeling of Omkareshwar Hydro-electric Plant at Narmada River

Madhya Pradesh state is forced to optimize the utilization of its water resources due to continuous depletion of the fossil fuels and its present power generation scenario. The state has two cascade schemes of hydro-electric plants one at Chambal river and the other at Narmada river. Narmada river at present has four main hydro plants in cascading mode starting from Bargi, Indira Sagar and Omkareshwar in Madhya Pradesh to Sardar Sarovar in the neighboring state of Gujrat. The installed capacities of 2810 MW of these hydro plants feed to the major portion of state’s electricity demand.
The proper scheduling of the hydroelectric plants mean, water resources must be used in such a way that, water discharge at an upstream plant is converted into electric energy at downstream plants without spillage. Hydroelectric scheduling of the plants requires a judicious modeling of each of the hydro electric plant for an improved efficiency and arrest possible losses. The paper presents the mathematical model of the Omkareshwar hydroelectric plant as part of cascade scheme at Narmada River in Madhya Pradesh.

Keywords: Hydro-electric system, hydro turbine model, reservoir model, tailrace model, water flow equation.

Amita Mahor and Dr. Saroj Rangnekar View PDF 1-5
Irrigation Management Transfer: A New Methodology to Improve the Performance of Agency Managed Irrigation Systems (AMISs)

This paper presents a new concept on the management of Agency Managed Irrigation Systems with the joint participation of the agency and the users, with their defined roles and responsibilities. The message of the system governance and operation methodology are disseminated to the grass root level of the users. Resource management and water charge collection are anticipated to be firmly applied in the system. The users and Water User’s Association and also Department of Irrigation field staff will be well trained in the Irrigation Management Transfer process with capacity building. For sustainability, monitoring and evaluation with independent auditing are part of the process. The general Irrigation Management Transfer procedures adopted by Department of Irrigation are redefined to this new concept in the World Bank assisted Irrigation and Water Resources Management Project.

Keywords: Irrigation management transfer, water users, AMIS, World Bank, Nepal

Achyut Man Singh View PDF 1-6
Water Quality Profile of Yamuna River, India

The water quality profile of a river represents the extent of its pollution in terms of health of a river with respect to its longitudinal direction. This paper deals with the water quality profile of north India’s Yamuna river using physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters that converge into a single value NSF WQI. The water quality map of the river has been prepared showing that the Delhi stretch is highly polluted due to dumping of waste and discharge of untreated sewage and industrial effluents. The water quality map is a useful tool for policy makers, decision makers and environmentalists to suggest and implement appropriate conservation measures to improve the health of the water body.

Keywords: Water quality, pollution, river profile, indices, mapping, India

M.P. Sharma, S.K. Singal and S. Patra View PDF 1-6
An Opportunities-Based Approach to Mitigating Risks Associated with Infrastructure Development Projects

‘Risk’ is a major point of focus in the literature on resettlement and reconstruction associated with the impacts of major infrastructure development on project affected individuals and families. Previous approaches to risk appear to emphasize the negative consequences of development, and it is no wonder then that project affected people often emphatically resist development and change. This paper proposes that a more pro-active, positive opportunities and benefits approach be taken in dealing with resettlement and reconstruction associated with large scale infrastructure projects. The discussion is focused on the eight ‘risk factors’ (or ‘opportunity factors’?) listed in the well known ‘Impoverishment Risk and econstruction’ (IRR) Model. Three more such factors are added to the list based on field experience in South Asia. The point is that by emphasizing the potential opportunities and benefits, project affected people are more likely to be supportive of projects that may disrupt their lives.

Keywords: Resettlement, opportunities, risk, IRR model, South Asia, infrastructure development

Don Messerschmidt View PDF 1-7
Topics PDF Pages
One Man Initiative
View PDF 1
View PDF 1-2
Review Article
View PDF 1-3
New India Rehabilitation and Resettlement Policy, and Associated
Legislative Measures Relating to Land Acquisition
View PDF 1-2