HYDRO Nepal Journal – Issue 18 (January 2016)

Table of Contents
Editorial PDF Pages
To Break the Vicious Circle of Energy Poverty
Jayanti Thapa View PDF
Articles Authors PDF Pages
Naumore Storage Project Should be the Last Resort of Development on the Main Course of Rapti (West), Nepal

Water, food and energy are three essential elements of life and, therefore, they need to be made internally secured in a long lasting manner. In the case of Nepal, river waters are the basic sources of all these elements and are the only resources available indigenously in Nepal for these purposes. Rapti (West), being medium size river of rain-fed nature, the dry spell continues long from December up to the end of May; at the same time the flood waters available particularly in July, August and September create havoc by flooding in the downstream reaches. The Kapilvastu area which can be commanded by the Rapti (West) river does not have other dependable sources for fulfilling its requirements. The only way to fulfill its requirements without affecting downstream users is, thus, to capture a portion of flood water of Rapti behind a storage dam aimed at diversion to Kapilvastu for use during dry season. An appropriate site for such purpose is located at Bhalubang. Hence, this site needs to be developed first to ensure the diversion to Kapilvastu and then a much higher storage dam site at Naumore could, later at appropriate time but within 25 to 30 years after development of Bhalubang site,be developed for increasing the flow regulation potential of the Rapti River so that the hydropower generation,flood control and intensification of irrigated agriculture at its commandable areas, could be maximized.

Keywords: Water, Energy and food securities, Naumore Storage Project, Rapti River, Nepal

Dr. Hari Man Shrestha View PDF 1-5
Review on the Major Failure Cases of Unlined Pressure Shafts/Tunnels of Norwegian Hydropower Projects

The Norwegian hydropower industry has more than 100 years of experience in constructing the unlined pressure shafts and tunnels. Most of the hydropower projects have long waterway systems consisting unlined high pressure shafts, underground powerhouse cavern, headrace and tailrace tunnels. The maximum static head reached with unlined pressure shaft and pressure tunnel concept is 1047 meter, which is equivalent to almost 10.5 MPa. It is obvious that the rock mass in the periphery of unlined shafts and tunnels experience high hydrostatic pressure exerted by the flowing water discharge. Experienced gained from the construction and operation of these unlined pressure shafts and tunnels were useful to develop design criterion and principles applied here in the Scandinavia. This paper reviews some of the first attempts of the use of unlined pressure shaft and tunnel concepts, highlights major failure cases, reviews and evaluates the triggering factors for the failure and also discusses about the gradual development of design criterion for the unlined pressure shafts and tunnels. The authors consider this review is a first step in the upgrade on this innovative concept, which could be used in other geological and tectonic environment than of the Scandinavia, such as in the Himalaya.

Keywords: Unlined pressure shafts and tunnels, hydropower projects, Norway, Himalaya

Dr. Krishna Kantha Panthi and Chhatra Bahadur Basnet View PDF 6-15
Hydropower Development: Before and After 1992

Hydropower Development Policy promulgated in 1992 by Government of Nepal (GoN) heralded domestic and foreign private investment in hydropower projects, which was instrumental in adding 255,647 MW to the system with the investment of US$ 493 million in a period of 23 years. While, public sector succeeded to add only 238.6 MW during the same period; thus adding a total of 489.14 MW to the system by public and private sectors. As cumulative total installed capacity of projects implemented prior to it in eight decades from 1911 through 1991 was only 239.33 MW, it manifests successful implementation of the policy with resultant mobilization of private investment.
Only 9th five-year plan period (1997-2002) succeeded to achieve 91% of the target set for the period resulting in mismatch in the growth of demand and supply; consequently load shedding. The reasons behind the failure need an in-depth analysis and critique of the policy and improvement thereof.

Keywords: Hydropower, Development, Public, Private, Partnership, NEA, Nepal

Ratna Sansar Shrestha View PDF 16-21
A History of FDI in Hydropower Development in Nepal

In Nepal, hydropower is an obvious target for foreign aid and foreign investment. To date, a number of notable hydropower projects were constructed through foreign aid and that history dates back to 1911, when the Britain supported the Pharping hydropower project near Kathmandu. Today, India, China, USA and Norway are investigating the prospects for Nepali hydropower development. This paper traces this history of Foreign
Direct Investment (FDI) in Nepal.

Keywords: Foreign aid, development, donor, political interest, Hydropower, Nepal

Prof. Dr. Kamal Raj Dhungel View PDF 22-24
High Density Polyethylene (HDP) Pipe as a Lining Material in Hilly Regions of Nepal

Canal lining is a major part of construction in irrigation projects. Canal lining determines the cost of project to a great extent but also the discharge delivery efficiency of the irrigation system. Though earthen canal sections are least expensive, simple to maintain and environmentally friendly, they have high seepage rates and demand frequent repair. In the light of need for resource conservation and the general unavailability of labour for maintenance work, a canal lining, though more expensive, may be justifiable in the long run. Technological advances in the construction have made available lighter and more affordable materials that enhance many parts of the irrigation process.
It is the private sector that should lead the development of these technologies as they relate to the construction business. We can look to foreign markets to see how canal lining technologies have improved the use of this tool in various environments and soils. In the Nepali context, we use traditional lining techniques like stone or reinforced concrete, which are effective in the plains, but less so in the hills and remote. In this paper, I review some alternatives to traditional canal linings, and examine the virtues of high density polyethylene (HDP) pipe for possible use in irrigation schemes.

Keywords: Canal Lining, HDP pipe, RCC, Hills, Nepal

Krishna Prasad Rijal View PDF 25-29
Road Transportation Energy Demand and Environmental Emission: A Case of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

The current trade embargo imposed by India has created an acute fuel crisis in Nepal which has stranded more than 50% of public vehicles affecting the supply of all the necessities and daily life of people. This study has shown some alternative ways to manage the vehicle fuel demand especially for urban transportation in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal. The modeling tool, Long-range Energy Alternative Planning System (LEAPS) has been used to develop a bottom-up model to estimate the energy demand and environmental emissions in the Kathmandu valley for the period 2016-2030 AD. Besides the Reference scenario, four alternative scenarios (Public Bus Penetration, Improved Fuel Economy, Electric Motorbike and Hybrid Electric Car) have been developed. In the Reference scenario, the cumulative energy demand will reach 142,092 thousand GJ within the analysis period. About 65% of this demand comes from motorbikes and light duty vehicles. If all of the alternative scenarios are implemented together, about 38% of energy demand and 54% of CO2 emission can be avoided compared to the reference scenario within the study period. About 1641 million US$ at the current market price can be avoided within the analysis period if all of these four options are applied together.

Keywords: Urban transportation, LEAPS, Environmental emissions, Energy demand, Kathmandu, Nepal

Iswor Bajracharya and Nawraj Bhattarai View PDF 30-40
Hydrobiological Study of the Yamuna River at Kalpi, District Jalaun, Uttar Pradesh, India

Hydro biological study of the Yamuna river at Kalpi in India was carried out for a period of twelve month (October 2013 to September 2014). Four sampling stations were selected for sampling purpose. Collected samples were evaluated for fourteen physico-chemical parameters such as W.T., pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, T.D.S., T.H., T.A., Cl, SO4, PO4, NO3, D.O., B.O.D. and C.O.D. and four biological parameters such as phytoplankton, zooplankton, aquatic macrophytes and fishes. Present study reveals that water quality of the Yamuna river was not fit for drinking purpose but it was satisfactory for fish culture and irrigation purpose. Presence of both pollution tolerant and pollution intolerant species of biological parameters shows that this water was moderately polluted during course of study.

Keywords: Yamuna river, Physico-chemical parameters, Biological parameters, Kalpi, India

Manoj Kumar, P.K. Khare and Ranvindra Singh View PDF 41-46
Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM): A Case Study of Durlung Watershed, Bagmati Zone, Nepal

Water in Nepal is a key strategic natural resource, which has potential to leads all round development and economic growth of the country. Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) is a holistic management approach, integrating land water interaction, socio-economic groups, upstream downstream relations, indigenous knowledge, and institutions built up, along the temporal dimensions based on an agreed set of principles. It is a Bottom-up decentralized approach for the management of water resources. IWRM is a challenge to conventional practices, attitudes and professional certainties. It confronts entrenched sectoral interest and requires that the water resources are managed holistically for the benefits of all.
The broad objective of the multidisciplinary study was to assess the possibilities of human dimensions of water resource development and its management. Water resource accounting is done by the collection of water resources data through participatory group formation. Scientific data of hydro and metrological stations was also acquired. Hydrological modeling tools were also used. Feasibility of hydropower plant and potential of power production in the basin was readily estimated.
Total daily discharge of the Durlung Watershed was estimated on an average as 157 Million Liters. Rivers of the watershed are turbulent, unsteady and flowing with very high current, which can be utilized by local people for low cost drinking water, tourism, irrigation and hydropower generation. Micro-hydropower production possibilities in Ratan and Deuta River has shown multidimensional positive impacts on socio-economic development of the region level of community partnership in IWRM and synchronization with the Local, District and National level institutional framework for Basin Management was observed to be satisfactory. Participatory research was carried out to identify water resource base with school and community partnership. Community motive, their difficulties and gaps in community level organization were identified. Capabilities of community, to take over the responsibilities of IWRM concept, there is a lot more need of training and capacity building for now.

Keywords: IWRM, Social Accounting, Community Based Water Resource Development and Management (CBWRDM), Participatory Group Formation and Mobilization Methods (PGFMM), Community Partnership, Participatory Research, Institutionalization, Nepal

Sabita Aryal Khanna and Kundan Lal Shrestha View PDF 47-54
Fishing Tourism can Support Fisher’s Livelihood and Fish Conservation in Nepal: A Value Chain Analysis

Fishing tourism of recreational fisheries is a multibillion dollar outdoor activity. The fishing tourism in Nepal is yet to be systematized. Focusing on this need, the present paper attempts to pioneer how recreational fisheries in Nepal could be useful having commendable world renounced fish resources, luring pristine and suitable scenic landscapes for promoting fishing tourism. It is argued that fishing tourism should be systematically regularized and practised in close collaboration with traditional ethnic fisher communities. Considering the potentiality, we elucidate the result of value chain analysis, arguing that promotion and streamlining of fishing tourism along with the traditional fishers could generate immense livelihood opportunities for resilience along with fish conservation. The value chain analysis showed that livelihood of fishers communities are likely to be enhanced by involving in fishing based tourism support services with fewer fishing activities, which in turn could be supportive to fish conservation. The present modality of promoting and systematizing fishing tourism might have implication to address the issues of poverty alleviation and resilience to fish conservation in many developing countries having similar socio-economic and agroecological setups in Nepal.

Keywords: Recreational fishing tourism, poverty, conservation, value chain, Nepal

Dr. Tek Bahadur Gurung and Amar Thing View PDF 55-60


Topics PDF Pages
Personality Profile
Janak Lal Karmacharya View PDF 61-62