HYDRO Nepal Journal – Issue 17(July 2015)

Table of Contents
Editorial PDF Pages
Climate Change: A Shadow over Nepal’s Himalayas
Bhai Raja Manandhar View PDF
Articles Authors PDF Pages
India’s XIIth Plan (2011/’12 – 2016/’17) on Capacity Addition - 88,500 Megawatt


S B Pun View PDF 1-2
Budhigandaki Hydroelectric Project is Unlikely to be Implemented as Recommended by Tractebel Engineering

Tractebel Engineering SA France has recommended 263 m high double curvature arch dam for the Budhigandaki Hydroelectric Project for generation of 1200 MW. The author, based on findings of the Tractebel’s feasibility study itself, gives reasons why the project is unlikely to be implemented as recommended by the consultant. Further, the author raises the question with the government why this project was declared as one of the projects of national pride and was ready for committing to funding beforehand for the preparation of detail design, tender documents and tender drawings in a single package contract along with the feasibility study when the investment decision could only be taken after ascertaining the soundness/ attractiveness of the project on technical, economical, financial and socio-environmental grounds through feasibility and Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) studies. The author also believes that the project could become more attractive if the downstream benefits from flow regulation in existing irrigation project in India could be accounted for and two potential hydroelectric projects in Nepal at the downstream reaches could be implemented first to derive additional power benefits in these two projects from flow regulation.

Keywords: Budhigandaki Hydroelectric Project; Feasibility; EIA; Nepal

Hari Man Shrestha View PDF 3-7
Environmental Flows in Nepal - An Evaluation of Current Practices and an Analysis of the Upper Trishuli-I Hydroelectric Project

Environmental assessments and environmental flows are important components in modern hydropower development. Various methods employing a combination of hydrology, hydraulics, environmental assessment and ecology have been developed for analysing and setting environmental flows. In the developed countries, detailed assessments are being carried out for setting environmental flows whereas very little attention has been given to this topic in Nepal. However, this trend is changing in recent developments. We discuss current minimum flow practices for a number of hydropower projects in the planning, development and operation phases to observe minimum flows and environmental flow over time. Furthermore, we present an analysis of environmental flows for the Upper Trishuli-I Hydroelectric Project in Nepal that is currently in the planning phase. We base our conclusion using current flow assessment methodologies to study the effects of proposed minimum flows and possible changes to improve the effect of compensatory releases.

Keywords: Environmental assessment; Environmental flows; Minimum flows; Flow assessment methodologies; Modelling; Nepal

Narayan Hari Rijal, Knut Alfredsen View PDF 8-17
Qanat System at Bidar District in Karnataka, India

A preliminary investigation on hydraulic system for revitalization of qanat system and emphasis model study at Bidar, Karnataka in India and in future such studies to be carried out to the other water structures.

Keywords: Qanat System; Hydralic system; Bidar; India

Kishore Raghubans View PDF 18-23
Effect of Sand Erosion on Turbine Components: A Case Study of Kali Gandaki “A” Hydroelectric Project (144 MW), Nepal

In high sediment laden river projects or silt affected power stations, the frequency of repair and maintenance of underwater parts is comparatively higher which leads to increase the overall forced outages per year for repair The extent of the major maintenance will depend on the operating condition such as suspended sediment load passing through the turbine and how the machine was loaded during the operation. This paper illustrates the analysis of sediments, effect of sand erosion and maintenance of turbine of Kali Gandaki “A” Hydroelectric Plant (144 MW). The paper also describes the repair methods used for different turbine components to minimize the effects induced by sediment erosion.

Keywords: Sand erosion; Maintenance; Runner; Guide vanes; Facing plates; Labyrinth rings; HVOF coating; Nepal

Balendra Chhetry, Kumar Rana View PDF 24-33
Ecosystem-based Adaptation Planning in the Panchase Mountain Ecological Region

As part of numerous efforts on adapting to climate change in Nepal, an approach of Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) is being demonstrated in the Panchase Mountain Ecological Region (PMER). Partners under the project entitled Ecosystem-based Adaptation in Mountain Ecosystems in Nepal have been implementing activities to reduce vulnerability of the PMER to climate change and enhance resilient capacity of communities and ecosystems in the region to cope with adverse impacts of climate change already being witnessed. This article places focus on the process of EbA planning and preliminary lessons learned through the project activities in particular at local and ecological level. Reflection and suggestion on EbA planning presented in the article is expected to help all stakeholders in the Himalayan region and beyond design and implement future climate change adaptation activities to be more effective and efficient while empowering local communities and ensuring social, economic and environmental sustainability.

Keywords: Ecosystem-based Adaptation; EbA; Adaptation planning; Panchase; Climate change in mountain; Nepal

Jaeyoon Park, Mozaharul Alam View PDF 34-41
Role of Water Research Institutions in Nepal and its Impact on Policy Changes


Prachanda Pradhan View PDF 42-43
Unlocking the Development of Hydropower Potential

Nepal is rich in hydropower amounted to 42 GW. But it is poor in terms of per capita electricity consumption amounted to 106 KWh which keeps Nepal in a lowest position among the countries of South Asia. Harnessing this is a must for Nepal to run to the road to prosperity. Electricity use and economic growth move in the same direction indicating an additional unit of growth requires additional multiple unit of electricity. There are a number of stakeholders of the rivers flowing inside Nepal. These rivers are being shared by four sovereign countries –originated in Tibet, enter Nepal and cross the border to flow in India and then in Bangladesh before reaching their final destiny. These rivers provide drinking water to the people of these countries. In addition, another option for the benefit to share of these rivers among the stakeholders is to develop hydropower in Nepal and export it to light the cities of the rest of countries. Nepal should prepare itself to make favorable environment-creating domestic market, reducing electricity generation cost, maintaining rule of law, creating stable policies, ending political instability, adopting appropriate pricing policies- to invite foreign direct investment needed to harness.

Keywords: Development; Hydropower potential; Economy; Nepal

Kamal Raj Dhungel View PDF 44-48
Climate Change and Community Perceptions in the Khudi Watershed, Lamjung, Nepal

Climate change and people’s perception on such changes are analysed for the Khudi Watershed in Western Nepal. Climate change trends in the western hilly region of Nepal were investigated focusing on two major climatic indicators: surface air temperature and rainfall. Further, community’s perceptions on climate change impacts were analysed. We found considerable warming in the study area with a mean temperature increase of 0.18°C decade-1. Annual rainfall is varying with prolonged dry periods. During monsoon season short but intense rainfall events were observed. Local denizens have also experienced these changes and think that weather related changes are affecting their livelihood practices with increased weather related disasters, less agricultural yield, and imbalances in socio-economic behavior.

Keywords: Climate change; Khudi watershed; Trends; Impacts; Community; People’s perceptions; Nepal

Aseem Raj Sharma View PDF 49-54
Sulitar Irrigation System: Struggle from Poverty to Prosperity

Nepal has glorious history with tens of thousands of self sustainable farmer managed irrigation systems, which accounts for about two third of total irrigated area in the country. Sulitar Irrigation System, located in Chitwan district of Nepal and constructed almost two decades ago, is one of them. The farmers have been relentlessly working for construction, maintenance, repair and operation of the system with wider community participation. Participation is not only limited to the field level but also extends to crafting of rules and regulation pertaining to the governance of the system. Participatory approach adopted in this system has fostered transparency and accountability in the management entity with a sense of ownership and self responsibility as an asset embraced by water users. In addition, effective system of resource mobilization for Operation and Maintenance (O & M) is appreciable. Their working culture of participation, purposefulness and integrity has drawn in huge amount of internal as well as external resources to the project. Efficient networking with other organizations has led to profound resource mobilization, leadership sharing and a buildup of strong social capital. They are also well aware of the sustainability of the system and pre-requisites for it. Resource generation and O & M of the system have been institutionalized for its durability and long-term sustainability.

Fundamental requirement for an irrigation system is the impact made by the system on the agriculture and livelihood of the people within the command area. Subsistence based agriculture prevailing before the service of irrigation system has now advanced to crop intensification and crop diversification paving the way for commercialization. Food security in the community has been enhanced and poor livelihood of common people has been transforming towards prosperity./p>
Keywords: Sulitar Irrigation System; Chitwan; FMIS; Poverty, WUA; Nepal

Krishna Prasad Rijal View PDF 55-60
Diurnal Air Quality Monitoring in Khumaltar Area, Lalitpur, Nepal

Air pollution is becoming a serious matter of concern from different aspects of our lives. It adversely affects the well being of the individuals or cause damages to properties. Pollutants identification requires measurements by standard methods of sampling and analysis. In this study, monitoring of TSP, PM10, SO2 and NO2 were performed during the months of April – August, 2008 by using high volume sampler, i. e. Envirotech APM 451 Model. Four hours (11:00 am to 3:00 pm) of monitoring for SO2 and NO2 , 24 hours of monitoring for TSP and PM10 were carried out. SO2 concentration ranged from 4.8 ?g/m3 to 20.5 ?g/m3 and NO2 concentration ranged from 1.2 ?g/m3 to 8.8 ?g/m3 for four hour monitoring period. TSP concentration ranged from 24.7 ?g/m3 to 82.0 ?g/m3 whereas PM10 concentration ranged from 25.4 ?g/m3 to 152.4 ?g/m3 for 24 hours of monitoring. Present study concluded that the air quality of Khumaltar area in Lalitpur, Nepal met WHO as well as NAAQS standards during the study period. Nepalese cities/towns have always been thought to be serious in terms of particulate matter pollution but consideration of the trend of gasesous pollutants emitted from vehicle exhaust is recommended for future research.

Keywords: Air Quality Monitoring; Nitrogen dioxide (NO2); Particulate Matter (PM); Sulfur dioxide (SO2); Total Suspended Particle (TSP); Nepal

Sujen Man Shrestha, Kanchan Thapa, Tista Prasai Joshi View PDF 61-65


Topics PDF Pages
An Interview with Dr. David J. Molden
View PDF 66-68
Topics PDF Pages
Project Review: Arun III Hydroelectric Project
Keshab Pyakurel View PDF 69-70