HYDRO Nepal Journal – Issue 16(January 2015)

Table of Contents
Editorial PDF Pages
Self-implementation or FDIs in Hydropower Development: A Dilemma
Bhai Raja Manandhar View PDF
Articles Authors PDF Pages
Utilizing India’s One Billion Dollar Line of Credit Budhi Gandaki, Mahakali III and Bridge over Mahakali – Projects Born and Bred at Singha Durbar?

When India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi offered Nepal $1 billion USD line of credit in August 2014, many Nepalese believed this would be utilized to implement the stalled 6,480 MW Pancheshwar Multipurpose the ‘sun rise from the west’ for Nepal! In fact, the joint press release of the two prime ministers did stress to However, it was reported that, India’s External Affairs Secretary, Ms. Sujata Mehta, visited Nepal in November 2014 and ‘concluded the terms and conditions for the credit line.’ While there was no word on the Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project, the Budhi Gandaki Hydropower Project suddenly raised its head with the government’s own line of credit. This article examines the background of these three projects (Budhi Gandaki, Mahakali III, and bridge over Mahakali) and questions whether they were truly born in Singha Durbar, or further away in Delhi.

Keywords: Budhi Gandaki, Mahakali III, Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project, Nepal

S. B. Pun View PDF 1-6
Estimating Tunnel Strain in Weak and Schistose Rock Mass under a State of in-situ Stress Anisotropy

Tunnels excavated in weak and schistose rock mass below high overburden (rock cover) are prone to instability in the form of tunnel deformation. The deformation in the tunnel takes place to such an extent that plastic deformation in tunnels, it is desirable that the response of the rock mass to induced stresses is known so that requirement of rock support can be estimated. Contrary to the assumption of uniform in-situ stresses made in analytical solutions for elasto-plastic analyses, large degree of stress anisotropy condition prevails in most tunnelling conditions. The effect of such anisotropic stress condition leads to varying degrees of deformations around the tunnel contour. Therefore, stress anisotropy is also an important factor that needs to be addressed to ensure a proper support design for tunnels.
This paper discusses the inter-relationship among rock mass property, in-situ stresses including horizontal to vertical stress ratio, tunnel support pressure and deformation. The study is based on the tunnel cases from the Nepal Himalaya. Three completed tunnel projects were selected, where moderate to large tunnel deformations had been recorded. Long term deformation records were analyzed to assess time independent and time dependent deformations. Results of the analyses of the tunnels in weak and schistose rock mass at stress anisotropy states show that a good correlation among tunnel strain, rock mass shear modulus, support pressure, vertical stress and stress ratio of horizontal to vertical stresses exists. Moreover, the study also shows found to be high in schist and micaceous phyllite, moderate in graphitic phyllite and low in siliceous phyllite. The and the corresponding requirement of support pressures in tunnel walls in weak and schistose rock mass.

Keywords: Tunnel, Schistose rock, Squeezing, Phyllite, Nepal

Pawan Kumar Shrestha, Krishna Kanta Panthi View PDF 7-13
The Case of Upper Karnali Hydroelectric Project

The Upper Karnali Hydroelectric Project, being one of the most attractive and suitable run-of-river hydropower projects for consumption of the energy in Nepal, should have been developed by Nepal for self-modest and gradual way of utilization of better hydropower sites for own sake. Even the meager free entitlements efforts

Keywords: Upper Karnali, PDAs, Hydropower, Nepal

Hari Man Shrestha View PDF 14-17
Power Sector and Hydropower Development in Nepal

This paper is prepared on the answer to the valuable comments made by late Jeewan P. Thanju on my article ‘Water Resources of Nepal: Misconception and Reality’ published in The Rising Nepal on January 23 & development. However, some spurious expert and vested interest group exaggerated the hydro potentiality and distorted the fact of water resources development prospective in Nepal. This has created confusion among the policymakers, politician and multilateral agencies. As a result, hydropower development in Nepal has headed for
wrong course, and now the power sector, the vital impetus for socio-economic development is in dire strait. This paper highlights the uniqueness and distinct technical features of Nepalese Power Sector.
In this paper important component like Integrated National Power System/Grid (INPS), Power Generation Modality (Hydropower, Thermal/Nuclear Plants and Diesel Plants) are well described and Master Plan, Project Selection, Construction Schedules and Hydropower potentiality of Nepal are discussed in detail. In a severe power and energy crisis situation in the country, power export is not recommended.
Nepal needs 3000 MW to reach the level of other south Asian nations. INPS is owned and operated by NEA; therefore NEA also has the responsibility to prepare master plan for power generation, transmission and distribution. But, the Department Electricity Development a regulatory body of Ministry of Energy of is undertaking / carrying out feasibility study without taking care of INPS/country’s power requirement. This has created duplication of work and confusion; as such the Ministry of Energy deviated from its responsibility of preparing sound policy, regulation and monitoring them strictly. The Ministry shouldn’t indulge in feasibility study,construction and operational activities, which come under the responsibility of concerned technical department/authority.

Keywords: INPS, hydropower, LDC, IPP, Run-of-River, Nepal

Rabindra Bahadur Shrestha View PDF 18-22
Climate Change and its Impact on Rice Yield

Monsoon patterns have been changing noticeably in recent years around the globe. These changes have tremendous effects on agriculture systems especially in the areas where rainfall is the precondition of agriculture. This paper will investigate monsoon patterns in Nepal and how they correlate with recorded rice yields. The results were analyzed and cross-checked with AquaCrop, a crop water productivity model.
The finding indicate that the Nepal’s monsoon patterns donot follow definitive trend. Parameters such as onset and withdrawal dates, duration and distribution are quite unpredictable. The patterns, however, do have direct impact on national average rice yields, but that effect has turned less sensitive in recent years.
The finding suggest that though monsoon has vital role on rice production in Nepal,where agriculture systems depend primarily on rainfall, more research is required to predict more accurately and precisely the production
functions and relationships to yield. The better we understand this relationship, the more we can compensate
for adverse monsoon patterns through anticipatory deployment of ag-technologies and advanced management
options. Furthermore, support from legislators will be required to move these ideas into practice.

Keywords: Climate change, monsoon, rice yield, AquaCrop model, Nepal

Krishna Prasad Rijal View PDF 23-27
Analysis of Sediment Samples and Erosion Potential: A Case Study of Upper Tamakoshi Hydroelectric Project

Hydropower can be an effective green solution for meeting the current energy demand in Nepal. However, despite having tremendous water resources, only 2% of Nepal’s hydroelectricity potential has been tapped. Of the challenges that Nepali hydro faces, sediment erosion is a major one.
Sediment erosion refers to an erosive tendency of sediment particles flowing with water over the exposed turbine parts including the runner. This paper deals with a sample analysis of sediment particles from the Upper Tamakoshi Hydroelectric Project. In this paper, we test for particle size distribution, particle count, mineral composition, and erosion potential analysis. For the mineral and erosion potential analysis, the sand samples range from 15um to 200um because the Tamakoshi plant consists of sediment traping system for particles larger than 150um.
The sediment samples were collected from three different points in the headrace and the severity of the effect of erosion has been analyzed in terms of depending variables like particle size, concentration, and mineral composition.

Keywords: Sediment erosion, erosion tendency, Sieve, Particle Size Distribution, Mineral composition, Rotating Disc Apparatus, Nepal

Ravi Koirala, Sailesh Chitrakar, Surya Nath Regmi, Manisha Khadka, Hari Prasad Neopane, Bhola Thapa View PDF 28-31
FDI in Hydropower and Choice of Jurisdiction


Ratna Sansar Shrestha View PDF 32-33
Down the Rabbit Hole


Christopher Butler View PDF 34-35
Study of Climate Change using GCM Downscaling: Special Reference to Indian Subcontinent

Climate change refers to a change in a state of the climate and it is one of the emerging issues in the 21st century. General Circulation Model (GCM) represents physical processes in the atmosphere, ocean, cryosphere and land surface. It is one of the advanced tools for simulating the response of the global climate system to increasing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations. The application of GCMs and its downscaling outputs helps to fill up the gap existing between large-scale and local-scale variables. This study clearly showed that GCM downscaling has been increasingly applied to the study of climate change in many parts of the world including the Indian sub-continent and their results are utilized to enhance planning and management purposes.

Keywords: Climate change; General circulation model; Greenhouse gas; Downscaling

Narayan P. Gautam, Manohar Arora View PDF 36-39
Cost-Effective and Eco-Friendly Methods for Lake Water- Purification

Lakes and reservoirs are very important property for people’s life, industrial activities and so on. They provide various benefits to us, such as securing water resources for drinking, agriculture and industrial use, fishery resource, flood control functions and ecosystem integrities. However, because of the closed nature of lakes’ water system, pollution tends to accumulate therein, once water is polluted, it is difficult to improve the water quality. In Addition, the situation is that a remarkable improving tendency of the water quality of lakes is not seen due to the increase of the pollutant load by the economic change and the increase of the Industrialization and population as well as the change in the lake environment.

Bhopal city popularly known as the city of lakes, have more than eighteen water bodies. Out of eighteen water bodies, few are source of drinking water after preliminary treatment. Rest of the water bodies serves secondary purposes like irrigation, fisheries and recreational activities etc. These two lakes are Shahpura Lakeand Lower Lake. Shahpura Lake is situated in new Bhopal city where as Lower Lake is situated in old city. Both are eutrophic and sewage fed lake.

Keywords: Water Quality; Treatment, lake; Physico-chemical; Aeration unit; Macrophytes; Sewage; Bhopal; India

Savita Dixit, Shlok Dixit View PDF 40-43
Combination of Francis and Pelton Turbines on a Pressure Pipe Line for an Optimal Utilization of Highly Variable Water Volumes


Thomas Sageder View PDF 44-45


Topics PDF Pages
Mr. Radhesh Pant granted an interview to Mr. Bhai Raja Manandhar, Managing Editor, Hydro Nepal Journal. The interview in its entirety is presented.
View PDF 48-51
Radhesh Pant
Topics PDF Pages
Personality Profile
Bhubanesh Kumar Pradhan View PDF 46-47
Project Profile
View PDF 52
Activites of JVS
View PDF 53