HYDRO Nepal Journal – Issue 13(July 2013)

Table of Contents
Editorial PDF Pages
Harnessing Water Resources in Nepal: Flood Control to Hydropower Development
View PDF 1
Articles Authors PDF Pages
The 60 versus 90 MW Battle over Upper Trishuli-3A
The Victors and the Vanquished
Classic Case of throwing the Baby out with the Bathwater!

Chronicling the Upper Trishuli3A (UT-3A) controversy is necessary because it provides a classic example of what ails our power sector and why we suffer such long load shedding. With a concessional US$120 million loan from China, UT-3A was tendered in February 2009 as a 60 MW project but with an ‘alternative proposal’caveat. Bids were opened in May 2009 and the lowest evaluated bidder, China Gezhouba Group Company (CGGC), included a625% of the cost’caveat for the ’90 MWoption: NEA had envisaged starting project construction ‘from the dry season of 2009′. However, a full two years lapsed before the order to commence work on the 60 MW UT-3Awas given in June 2011. This unduly long two year delay and the ‘chalkhel’therein could be another chronicle in itself. The 60 versus 90 MW controversy then spilled over to the public. The blistering partisan stands of the media were compounded by the bureaucratic ‘save your necks’ committees’ recommendations. Twenty months after the commencement order for the 60 MW was given, Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai’s cabinet approved ‘in principle’the 90 MW upgrading in January 2013. This decision was lambasted for abuse of power ‘for personal and party’s benefit ….. no other motive than earning cash.’ Strangely, the cat was finally belled by Khil Raj Regmi’s bureaucrat-led lnterim Election government when the NEA Board on 31* May 201 3 approved the 90 MW upgrading to ‘optimize available resources.’The NEA Unions, supported by political stalwarts, immediately rose up in objection. In a mere 12 days, the lnterim government buckled and the NEA Board was forced to eat the humble pie: it reversed its 90 MW decision to 60 MW for a ‘more congenial environment’ in the supply of electricity. This article attempts to analyze this controversial issue by reconstructing the sequence of events and decisions so that latter-day researchers will judge the victors and the vanquished in the UT-3A controversy.

Keywords: Plant optimisation, Upper Trishuli-3A, NEA, Nepal

SB Pun View PDF 8-15
The Necessity ofland Challenges to International Project
Financing of Hydropower Projects in Nepal

Although development of 40,000 MWs of hydropower plants in Nepal is said to be feasible from an engineeringleconomic perspective, from a financing through Nepalese banks perspective, it is impossible. Loans from international banks are needed to finance hydropower projects in Nepal as local banks do not have capacity to support large projects. However, most international banks have not yet been interested as many Nepalese projects are not yet considered “bankable” from a project finance perspective. There are many challenges to financing hydropower projects as the financing requires the project itself to be free of risk from a legal and contractual viewpoint, thus making it worthy of being used as collateral on its own right. The only way forward is for the government to change its policies significantly to ensure the bankability of projects currently being developed by many independent power producers.

Keywords: Project finance, hydro power financing, FDI

Anjan Neupane View PDF 16-19
An Overview of Glaciers Distribution in the Nepal Himalaya

Glaciers in the Himalayas are the important resource for fresh water. Continuous releases of the water from these glaciers make an important contribution to the drinking water, agriculture, and hydropower supply of densely populated regions in south and central Asia. Glaciers are not only a necessity for the survival of the people living in the low lying areas but also for their prosperity. Therefore, special attention should be given to detail research in the distribution of the glaciers in the Himalayan region and its surroundings.
Physical parameters of glaciers area, length, depth, elevation profiles were analyzed based on the data provided by WGMS and NSIDC (1989), which was updated in 2012. Machhapuchhre, Thyangbo, Cho Oyu, Taweche, Setta, Tingbo and Kanchanjanga glaciers were found as the smallest glaciers in terms of area (el km2), mean length (e 2km) and mean depth (40m) in the Nepal Himalaya. Langtang Ngojumba, Barun and Yalung glaciers were found as the largest glaciers in terms of area (>50km2). Large difference between start and end elevation point of glaciers of Khumbu, Ngojumba, Imja, Langtang indicates coverage area profiles are large and located in steep slopes of the Nepal Himalaya, which may result in linear erosions and avalanches. This paper also discusses about the Glacier Lake Outburst Flood (GLOF) in the Himalayan region.

Keywords: Glaciers, Himalayas, GOLF, Nepal

Shakti P. C., Dhiraj Pradhananga, John Pomeroy, Wenchao Ma,and Pei Wang View PDF 20-27
Performance Evalution of Pelton Turbine: A Review

Earlier only experimental techniques were used to predict the performance of turbines. With advanced numerical techniques and increase in processing power of computers, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has emerged as an effective tool for the performance prediction of Pelton hydraulic turbine involving multi-fluid flow. Extensive work has been done for design optimization of reaction turbines using CFD. Now it is being extended for impulse turbines. The flow in reaction turbines involves only water as working medium, but in case of impulse turbines, water and air are working medium. The water jet issued from nozzle is surrounded by air and pressure around the jet and turbine is atmospheric. The performance of Pelton turbine depends upon the shape, size and quality of jet as well as shape of the buckets. In the present paper, the literature review on applications of CFD for performance prediction,design optimization of Pelton turbine have been discussed.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, Pelton turbine, free surface flow, multi-phase fluid flow

Vishal Gupta, Dr. Ruchi Khare and Dr. Vishnu Parsad View PDF  28-35
Optimized Design of Francis Turbine Runner for Sand Laden Water

Nepal has an enormous amount of water resources and the topography gives rise to a huge hydropower potential. Out of 83,000 MW, only about 43,000 MW is economically and technically feasible. However, rivers of Nepal contain heavy quantities of sand particles. This is why the hydropower plants of this region face severe sand erosion problem.
Erosion mechanism in hydropower is a complex phenomenon. It is a major technological challenge for R-0-R (Run off river) hydropower plants. There are several technologies to reduce erosion but none of them has proven to be economically viable. The hydraulic design of the turbine with a new design philosophy expected to reduce sand erosion considerably and this process is economic too.
This paper describes the alternative optimized design of Francis turbine runner for large sediment load. The process involves optimization to obtain specific Francis runner blade using not defined ANSYS CFX parametric study.The process also includes analysis of the runner blade using CFX parametric study and Fluid structure interaction simulation for specific blade design. Design and drafting of the runner and part model design for FSI (Fluid Structure Interaction) analysis have also been described.

Keywords: Francis runner, optimization, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), FSI

Krishna Parsad Shrestha, Bhola Thapa, Ole G. Dahlhaug, Hari Parsad Neupane, Nikhil Gurung and Atmaram Kayastha View PDF  36-43
Analaysis of Squeezing Phenomenon in the Headrace Tunnel of Chameliya Project, Nepal

The headrace tunnel of Chameliya Hydroelectric Project, Nepal has faced severe squeezing problems from chainage 3+100m to 3+900m. Due to the severe squeezing and deformation, the tunnel cross section has narrowed considerably along this 800m long tunnel stretch. The tunnel wall closure (deformation) is mostly well over 1 m and the maximum recorded closure exceeds 2m. This paper assesses the squeezing phenomenon along this tunnel stretch through evaluation of rock mass properties and support pressure. Three different methods (two analytical and one 2D finite element numerical modeling program) are used in this analysis. The finding is that it is possible to predict extent of squeezing in tunnel if more than one method is used to verify rock mass mechanical properties.

Keywords: Tunnel squeezing, Headrace tunnel, Chameliya Hydroelectric Project, tunnel deformation, support

Chhatra Bahadur Basnset, Pawan Kumar Shrestha and Krishna Kanta Panthi View PDF 44-51
Water, Water Everywhere......but Will Everyone Have a Drink?

The elder bank executive looked me straight in the eye and said, “We have two choices. Energy comes from two places … the heaven or the hell. Water comes from heaven. Coal and oil come from hell.” He folded his hands and sat back in his chair. To him, there was nothing left to talk about. In today’s setting of climate change, load shedding, and the need for economic development in Nepal, the logic of hydropower was unassailable: a renewable source of energy with little to no emissions that could be used not only for electrifymg rural parts of the country, but also to generate revenue for infrastructure projects throughout Nepal.

Christopher Butler View PDF  52-56
Overview of June 2013 Flood and Landslides with Focous on Darchula Disaster

In mid June 2013 there was a cloud outburst in northern Uttrakhanda, lndia and far western region of Nepal, due to simultaneous activation of monsoon arms one from Bay of Bengal in the east and other from the southwest.. There was 322mm of rainfall in Uttarakhanda during the week 13-19 of June 2013 (847% of the normal rainfall of Uttrakhanda for this period). The extreme flood event caused thousands of human lives lost and several billions of property damages in lndia and extensive damages in Nepal. The Mahakali River a border river between lndia and Nepal caused very heavy damages in several places in Nepal’s Darchula and also in Dodhara and Chandhani, the Nepali settlements in west side Mahakali River.
Contribution of Dhualiganga a tributary of the Mahakali River where a 280 MW hydro plant with 6.2 million cubic meters of storage reservoir capacity is constructed by lndia for the severity of flash flood in the region cannot be overlooked. The sudden spillway gate opening from this reservoir added the already very heavy floods in Mahakali that devastated Darchula the district HQ of Darchula. More than 100 houses in Darchula were washed away by the big flood event. However, lndia was quick to refute the charge of sluice-gate-opening of the Dam and stated that the disaster in Darchula was not caused by the dam opening. Detailed Investigation is yet to be done. This papers analyses the events surrounding the 17-18 June catastrophic flood causing wide spread damages in Darchula District Head Quarter. Both the countries need to work honestly for mutual benefit especially for minimising the effects of any disasters in the future.

Keywords: Extreme rainfall, flood damage in Darchula, Dhualiganga dam, Nepal

Er. Prakash Paudel, Er. Shital Babu Regmee and Surya Nath Upadhyay View PDF  57-63
Water Quality Profile of Swan River, Himanchal Pradesh, India using GIS

To meet the ever increasing demand of drinking water, a number of shallow tube wells are used to draw the water from upper aquifers of Swan river. In most parts of the river catchment, the current ground water extraction is exceeding the recharge rate causing the rapid depletion of shallow ground water, resulting in serious environmental hazards like land subsidence during the dry season flow and very low dilution levels in the surface water. The water becomes polluted due to domestic and industrial waste water discharges. The present paper aims to study a water quality map of Swan River based on the computations of the National Sanitation Foundation lndex (NSFWQI) and the Overall lndex of Pollution (OIP) using water quality data from July to December 2012. A GIs tool has been used to prepare a water quality map of the study stretch (as a function of distance) along upstream and downstream from the pollution sources. The water quality map can help planners and designers make a quantitative assessment of the problem and better suggest long term measures to improve the health of the river.

Keywords: Water quality, Geographic Information System (GIS), National Sanitation Foundation NSF (WQI), Overall Index of pollution (OIP)

A. K. Sharda, M.P. Sharma and Pankaj Dahyat View PDF  64-69
Preparing Nepal’s Vision for 2050 in Water and Energy
Jeewan Thanju View PDF  70-71
Effect of Silt Size, Concentration and Nozzle Angle on Erosion of Turgo Turbine Blades

An experimental investigation in actual flow conditions has been carried out to study the effect of silt size, concentration, jet velocity, operating hours and nozzle angle on erosive wear of Turgo impulse turbine blades. Experiments have shown that maximum erosion occurs at nozzle angle of 20″ for silt size 370 pm and silt concentration of 12000 ppm. During the experiments it has been observed that erosive wear depends on silt size, silt concentration, nozzle angle and operating hours of turbine. A correlation has also been developed as a function of silt size, silt concentration, operating hours of turbine and nozzle angle.

Keywords: Silt size, silt concentration, correlation, nozzle angle, normalized wear (OIP)

Sourabh Khurana, Varun Goel, Khushmeet Kumar and Muneesh Sethi View PDF 72-77
An Interview with Professor Dr. Govinda Raj Pokharel, Executive
Director, Alternative Energy Promotion Center, Nepal
Govinda Raj Pokhrel View PDF 78-87
Book Review: Booklets on Water / Water Resources-Published by GWP Nepal and JVS Nepal

All the booklets are written by experienced professionals. Mr. Surya Nath Upadhyay is a prominent person with more than three decades of experiences and expertise in the sector of water resources. In all the three booklets the subjects including associated legal matters are dealt in depth in a simple, to the point and understandable manner. The first two books are written in simple Nepali language that can be understood by common people, students etc. All the three books are highly useful even for water professionals as a reference materials and also for developers of water resource, hydropower, enthusiast of water resources of Nepal. In fact every water resource professional should have a copy of these booklets.

Jayandra Prasad Shrestha, Knut Alfredsen and Netra Timalsina View PDF 88


Topics PDF Pages
“Hydro Nepal Excellence Award”
View PDF 1
“Seminar, Mini- Hydro Development in Nepal”
View PDF 54-56
“GWP, Nepal/JVS Activities 2013″
View PDF 76-77
View PDF 81-85