HYDRO Nepal Journal – Issue 12 (January 2013)

Table of Contents
Editorial PDF Pages
Recurrent Energy Crisis in Nepal: Why !
View PDF 1
Articles Authors PDF Pages
World Bank’s 2012 Ganges Strategic Basin Assessment:A View from Nepal

The World Bank’s 2012 Ganges Strategic Basin Assessment (GSBA) is an interesting but contentious document with a wealth of information. The basin has a population of 656 million; and 47 percent of Indians, 576 million, live in this basin. Nepal’s three bordering States of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal with a population of 199, 104 and 91 million respectively have a staggering combined population of 385 million, far greater than that of the USA. The Ganges basin has the world’s highest population density and, as a consequence, poverty level borders that of Sub-Sahara. This is India’s Hindu cow belt where water is increasingly getting scarce. With the strategic resource, water, getting scarce in the Ganges, the Bank’s GSBA has some startling findings: storages in Nepal store ‘significantly little’ water, so flood control in India is ‘very limited’. Storages in Nepal can ‘double lean season flows’, but agricultural productivity in India is ‘currently very low’ from such augmented flows. The Bank believes that ‘hydropower and trade’ is ‘significant’ and negotiation ‘simpler than previously thought’. The Bank recommends that Nepal push her hydropower development on a fast track. Many believe it is not the ‘significant’ power trade that counts. What really counts is whether or not the traded Energy will be at a Significant Rate. By pushing Nepal’s significant hydropower, the Bank is advocating a policy whereby India avail free lean season water stored in Nepal’s fertile valleys submerged for perpetuity. I n the Bank’s opinion, as India’s agricultural productivity is currently very low and flood control very limited, Nepal’s downstream benefits are also very low. Nepal is, thus, very disappointed with the Bank’s such Indo-centric GSBA report.

Keywords: Ganges Strategic Basin Assessment (GSBA), World Bank, treaty, Nepal

SB Pun View PDF 6-12
National River Linking Project of India

India plans to transfer water from the water surplus region of the north-east to the water scarce regions of western and southern India. The plan is called the National River Linking Project (NRLP). Sixteen links in the Himalayan region and 14 links in the Peninsular region are proposed that will transfer annually about 174 Billion m3 (Bm3) of water through a canal network of 14,900 km. It will involve connecting 37 rivers and construction of dams/storages in 3,000 places. It is estimated to cost US$ 120 Billion (in 2000 price). The projected benefits are additional irrigation to 34 million hectares of land, generation of 34,000 MW of electricity, reduction of floods, and social upliftment.
Many prominent experts and personalities have criticized the project claiming that it will be a financial, social and environmental disaster. Both the proponents and opponents think that India will be doomed depending on whether the NRLP is implemented or not (Amarsinghe 2009). The International Water Management Institute (IWMI) in collaboration with the Challenge Program for Water & Food (CPWF) undertook a three year Strategic Analysis of the NRLP to evaluate the NRLP concept with a detailed analysis.
This paper is a general description of the NRLP, and it summarizes the findings of the Strategic Analysis of this Project undertaken by IWMI-CPWF. Further, it explores the possible consequences to India’s neighbors in general and Nepal in particular.

Keywords: River Linking Project, Himalayan link, peninsular link, inter basin water transfer, Strategic Analysis, India

Naveen M. Joshi View PDF 13-19
Predicting Tunnel Squeezing: A Discussion based on Two Tunnel Projects

Tunnel squeezing is a phenomenon, which is frequently confronted while tunneling through Himalayan rock mass. Weak and schistose rocks like mudstone, shale, slate, phyllite, schist, highly schistose mica gneiss and the rock mass of the tectonic fault zones are incapable of sustaining high stresses. A reliable and trustworthy prediction on the extent of squeezing is therefore essential. The reliable prediction results help to make strategy regarding stabilizing measures and optimization of tunnel rock support well in advance.
This paper is mainly focused in analyzing the tunnel squeezing that took place in connection with the two tunnel cases; i.e. Kali Gandaki ‘A’ and Middle Marsyangdi headrace tunnels. The main focus is given to look on the applicability of squeezing analysis using Hoek and Marinos approach in combination with the equation proposed by Panthi for the estimation of rock mass strength for highly schistose rocks of the Himalaya. The measured tunnel convergence (squeezing) and lab tested mechanical properties of the rocks from these two headrace tunnels have been used to verify the applicability of the proposed methods and also the uncertainty analysis approach on squeezing introduced by Panthi.

Keywords: Tunnel squeezing, Kali Gandaki ‘A’ headrace tunnel, Middle Marsyangdi headrace tunnel, Nepal

Krishna Kanta Panthi View PDF 20-25
Water Quality Assessment of Sukhna Lake of Chandigarh City of India

The Sukhna Lake of Chandigarh City is a man-made lake situated in the foothills of the Shivalik range in the north-east corner of the city. This urban lake is one of the prime tourist places of the ‘City Beautiful’ and is mainly used for recreational purposes like boating, morning and evening strolls, exercises, food plaza and sightseeing. The catchment of the lake is mainly hilly and erosion prone, with the Sukhna wildlife sanctuary comprising a major portion of it. The water quality index of the lake water and its dependence on catchment characteristics has been studied. By using the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI) and Overall Index of Pollution (OIP), the results of the water quality assessment have found the lake water as having ‘good’ and ‘acceptable’ quality respectively based on past seven years’ data. During the last few years, construction activities in the catchment area have speeded up and a few invasive alien plant species have come up in the lake. Inflow of untreated domestic waste water from nearby villages in the catchment, particularly during the rainy season, seems to be the main reason for the weed problem in the lake. Strict enforcement of ban on new construction activities and preventing the release of untreated domestic waste water from the villages located in the catchment are the absolute necessary steps for maintaining and improving the lake water quality.

Keywords: Lake catchment characteristics, market and non-market benefits, Shivalik hills, water quality index,water quality parameters, India

P. Chaudhry, M.P. Sharma, R. Bhargave,S. Kumar and P.J.S.Dadhwal View PDF  26-31
Local Response to Conservation Practices in Use for the Protection of Tinau River, Nepal

A study was undertaken to identify the pressing problems in the Tinau River and to suggest ways to overcome the various problems such as pollution, riverbed extraction, bank erosion and threats to the foundation of bridges, etc. The study showed several problems responsible for deteriorating the health of the Tinau River. The Study suggests that the agencies and stakeholders should work together to counter the various negative problems.A Commission involving the concerned representatives from the Government, Municipality, DDC, VDC and the stakeholders such as WUAs of irrigation, water supply and others has been proposed to be established. All the river conservation practices from the Government and funding agencies have to be implemented with the active participation of the beneficiaries. It must be started as early as possible. The effective way of river conservation would be the active participation of the local inhabitants with meaningful Government support.

Keywords: Tinau River, conservation, riverbed materials, extraction, river health, participatory approach, Nepal

Khet Raj Dahal and Hari
Prasad Guragain
View PDF  32-38
Monte Carlo Simulation for Economic Analysis of Hydropower Pumped Storage Project in Nepal

Investments in hydropower pumped storage projects (PSP) are subjected to a high degree of uncertainty.In addition to normal uncertainties in hydropower schemes, the profit of a pumped storage scheme is dependent on the margin between power prices for buying and selling, which is difficult to predict without a power purchase agreement (PPA).
A PSP without a PPA and without known construction costs requires quantification of the uncertainties in order to make qualified decisions before investing in such projects. This article demonstrates the advantages of using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations as a tool in the economic analysis of PSPs. The method has been tested on a case study, namely the Tamakoshi-3 Hydropower Project (HPP) in Nepal.
The MC method is used to calculate the probability distribution of the net present value of installing reversible units in the Tamakoshi-3 HPP. The calculations show that PSPs may be profitable in Nepal, given a beneficial development of the power market.
The MC method is considered to be a useful tool for economic analysis of PSPs. In this case study of installing reversible units in the Tamakoshi-3 HPP, there are many uncertainties, which the MC simulation method is able to quantify.

Keywords: Hydropower, pumped storage, reversible turbines, Monte Carlo, Tamakoshi-3, Nepal

Kaspar Vereide, Leif Lia
and Lars Ødegård
View PDF  39-44
Technical Guidelines for Installation of Rainwater Harvesting System and its Operation

Rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems have been in use since ancient times, and these days its use is increasing. However, due to improper planning and design, problems are seen and the collected water is polluted. The major reason for water contamination is attributed to the toxic materials used for the rain harvesting system, faulty operation, improper rain filtration system and improper disinfection methods. The reason for diseases arising from drinking rainwater is the consumption of contaminated rainwater. Clean raindrops comprising rainwater will become contaminated as they pass through the atmosphere, flow over the roof surface, flow along the gutter, and upon collection and storage.
This paper focuses on the technical guidelines for the installation of RWH components, its operation and maintenance, and rainwater quality improvement for household use.

Keywords: Rainwater harvesting, first flush for RWH, disinfection of rainwater, catchment, guidelines for RWH

Binod Shakya and Jeewan P. Thanju View PDF  45-51
Satellite-Based Precipitation Estimation for Hydropower Development

Runoff is one of the major factors that govern the capacity of a hydropower project. Precipitation data are needed for estimation of runoff through runoff simulation using a hydrological model. Dense setup of rain gauge network in a mountainous topography is difficult and expensive. An alternative for this problem is the use of Satellite precipitation data with high spatial and temporal resolution. They have an additional advantage that they represent areal precipitation. But, these data should be duly evaluated before using them. In this study, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B42) precipitation data are evaluated using ground based precipitation stations over Nepal and fed in a rainfall-runoff model to estimate monthly discharge through four of the major basins of Nepal. A simple water balance model has been used, initially developed by Thornthwaite. Statistical parameters showed significant under-estimation of precipitation over major areas of Nepal. The results from the water balance model presented quiet a good estimation of discharge through basins with an average Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (R²) value of 0.8. This implies that TRMM data can be used for runoff simulations over Nepal. The TRMM satellite data can be used during the planning stage of hydropower projects as well as on ungauged catchments.

Keywords: TRMM, satellite precipitation, rainfall-runoff model, Thornthwaite water balance, Nepal

Bijaya Tamrakar and Knut Alfredsen View PDF  52-58
Flooding and Inundation in Nepal Terai: Issues and Concerns

During the monsoon months from June to September, all the rivers in Terai are in spate with bank-full discharges and cause flooding and inundation. The problems of flooding and inundation in the Terai are more critical due to change in climate in general and change in rainfall pattern/intensity in particular. This article tries to highlight the issues and concerns of flooding and inundation in the Terai and suggests measures to mitigate these issues in light of climate change adaptation.

Keywords: Flooding, inundation, River Training Works, Terai, Nepal

Basistha Raj Adhikari View PDF 59-65
An Integrated Approach for Long Term Solutions of Flooding:A Study for the Eastern Chitwan Valley

A timeline study since 1976-2010 with satellite imagery maps on the flooding problems of Eastern Chitwan has revealed that due to the rapid degradation of the vegetative cover in the upper catchments of its rivers, increased flooding events had occurred. The conditions of the catchment environment depend on the behavior and activities of the people residing in the area. Infrastructure construction for the flood control in the river banks are short term Solutions only effective for a few years. For a long term solution, the people of the area need to be sensitive for the River training works and good watershed management. The study has emphasized social and institutional aspect along with awareness campaign with the populations to achieve good impacts in the long term.

Keywords: Flood control, watershed management, dykes, spurs, catchments, flood plains, Nepal

Achyut Man Singh View PDF 65-75
Experimental Investigation of Erosion and Performance of Turgo Impulse Turbine

The present study has been carried out to investigate the effect of silt size, concentration, jet velocity, nozzle angle and operating hour on the erosive wear as well as on the performance of the Turgo impulse turbine in actual flow conditions. Samples of silt were collected from the Beas River (India) near the Pandoh dam. It has been found experimentally that silt parameters, nozzle angle and operating hour of the Turgo turbine increases the erosive wear rate in the turbine components causing efficiency loss in the Turgo impulse turbine and final breakdown of hydro turbines.

Keywords: Turgo turbine, nozzle angle, normalized wear, efficiency loss, silt size

Sourabh Khurana, Varun and
Anoop Kumar
View PDF  76-79
Performance Evaluation of Sewage Treatment Plants in Lucknow City

The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of existing sewage treatment plants (STPs) in Lucknow City of India. Currently, two STPs are operating in Lucknow, i.e., UASB reactor and FAB reactor, with total perating capacity of 345MLD and 56MLD, respectively. Since, the wastewater get mix with the domestic effluent while directing towards the STPs, therefore, the concentration of BOD is relatively very low, and hence the amount of biogas production by the UASB reactor is also reduced than its design value. Two approaches, evaluating the treatability performance and Life- Cycle Assessment (LCA) have been used to determine the plants efficiencies. All the results have been interpreted graphically. The results of this study conclude that the UASB reactor is better than the FAB, however in terms of LCA the FAB seems to be more reliable

Keywords: Sewage treatment, life cycle analysis, pollution, UASB, FAB, land cost, influent, effluent, Lucknow City, India

Mansi Tripathi and S.K. Singal View PDF 80-86
An Interview with Dr. Keshav Man Shakya, Minister,Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment
Dr. Keshab Man Shakya View PDF 87-88
Book Review: International Watercourse Law and A Perspective on Nepal-India Relation
Jeewan P. Thanju View PDF 89-91
Water and Energy Commission Secretariat
A Lamed Agency View PDF 96


Topics PDF Pages
View PDF 92-93