HYDRO Nepal Journal – Issue 11(July 2012)

Table of Contents
Editorial PDF Pages
Harnessing Water for Greater Regional Good
View PDF 1
Articles Authors PDF Pages
Probabilistic Approach for Assessing Rock Mass Quality in the Tunnel

Rock mass is a heterogeneous media and the quality of the rock mass may change within a very short distance. As a result, on many occasions considerable discrepancies (variations) have been found between the predicted and actual rock mass conditions along the tunnel alignment, resulting in significant cost and time overruns. Finding innovative solutions for quantifying the quality of rock mass and assessing the risk of discrepancies are, therefore, key issues for cost effective and optimum tunneling solutions in the Himalayan region. In this paper, a probabilistic approach of uncertainty analysis has been proposed to evaluate the quality of rock mass based on the Q-system of rock mass classification. Mapped rock mass quality data from the Modi headrace tunnel from Nepal have been used as a case study. The degree of correlation between the simulated results achieved by a probabilistic assessment using @Risk and values actually measured in the tunnel have been discussed. It is concluded that the probabilistic approach can be used as a tool in predicting rock mass quality and assessing risk in tunneling projects.

Keywords: Probabilistic approach, rock mass quality, tunnel, Nepal

Krishna Kanta Panthi View PDF 6-11
The 1996 Mahakali Treaty Whither the “Rashtriya Sankalpas/National Strictures” of Nepalese Parliament?

Despite the ratification by the Joint Session of Nepal’s two Houses of Parliament with an overwhelming majority on September 20, 1996 and despite the exchange of instruments of ratification by the two countries on June 5, 1997, the Pancheshwar Detailed Project Report (DPR) has yet to see the light of day even after the lapse of 16 years. It was believed that Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba’s government with the concurrence of the main opposition party, Communist Party of Nepal- United Marxist Leninist (CPN-UML), had ratified the Mahakali Treaty with four ‘rashtriya sankalpas/national strictures’. It was also believed that an all party Parliamentary Monitoring Joint Committee headed by the Speaker of the Lower House was constituted to guide the Nepalese side in the preparation of the detailed project report of Pancheshwar. That Monitoring Joint Committee in a span of four years held 28 meetings. Now the very legality of those four ‘rashtriya sankalpas/national strictures’ is being questioned. In 2009 the Secretary level Nepal-India Joint Committee on Water Resources constituted the Pancheshwar Development Authority (PDA) that was given the crucial mandate to ‘finalize’ the vital much-awaited Pancheshwar DPR. As institutions have no memory and public memory is extremely short, this article attempts to recapitulate the commitments made at treaty ratifi cation time by the Deuba government in concurrence with the then largest party, CPN-UML. The article argues against the mandate given to the bureaucrat-led PDA to finalize the Pancheshwar DPR and strongly recommends formation of an all party mechanism akin to the previous Parliamentary Monitoring Joint Committee to guide the government during this critical Interim period.

Keywords: Mahakali Treaty, Rashtriya Sankalpas, national strictures, parliament, Pancheshwar project, Nepal

S.B. Pun View PDF 12-17
Scope, Possibility and Risks in Hydropower Development in the North East Region of India

The North Eastern Region (NER) of India has immense untapped hydropower potential which can be an excellent source of electricity for India. Hydropower development is also expected to trigger overall growth of the region and improve infrastructure. Hydropower potential of NER should be exploited through an optimal mix of runoff- river and storage projects. This paper discusses the prospects, possibilities and practical aspects of hydropower development in this region.

Keywords: Hydropower development, North East Region, potential, risks, India

Sharad K. Jain View PDF 18-24
Proposed Wastewater Treatment Plant for a Paper Mill

The decline in the availability and alarming pollution of the existing water resources is the major environmental problem of third-world countries. The main reason of water pollution is the disposal of untreated industrial effluents. This study was designed to evaluate the pollution load caused by a paper mill, and to propose a wastewater treatment plant design, based on the analyses of wastewater samples. The wastewater samples were collected from the local paper mill for a period of more than four months on a regular basis. The pH, temperature, color, TSS, TDS, BOD, COD and AOX were measured as, 8.1, 23oC, 2,431 PtCo unit, 956 mg/L, 3,046 mg/L, 1,582 mg/L, 2,492 mg/L and 19.81 mg/L, respectively. Based on the data obtained, the wastewater treatment plant consisting of a screening chamber, primary sedimentation tank and a UASB reactor was designed. It was concluded that the treatment efficiency of more than 75% removal of BOD and COD concentrations could be accomplished. The treatment plant will also be able to produce 2,200 m3/day of biogas.

Keywords: Water pollution, paper mill, treatment plant, biogas

Arshad Ali and Muhammad Jawed Iqbal View PDF  25-28
Lessons to be Learned from the Experience of Electricity Reforms in India

The electricity sectors in India have been undergoing significant reforms since nineties. The initial status of the electricity sector when reform of the industry was initiated was very similar across all states in India. The state electricity boards prior to reform were vertically integrated public utilities, the distribution companies had significant technical and commercial losses and the state utilities were in poor financial health. Most states in India shared similar stories; however, when these states reformed their electricity sector in the nineties, we see differences in the current market structure despite all states having started with similar industry organization. In this paper, we carry out case studies of electricity sector reforms in Orissa, Delhi and Karnataka. These three cases have been selected for their diversity in approaches to electricity reform. What motivated these states to reform? What types of market designs are currently in place and why market designs differed in these states? We analyse these cases and aim to explain the differences in sector performances and extract some lessons in the context of Nepal’s electricity sector

Keywords: Electricity reforms, case study, Orissa, Delhi, Karnataka, India

Sharad B. Karmacharya View PDF  29-36
Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs

Hydropower reservoirs are found to emit about 35-70 times less greenhouse gas (GHG) compared to thermal power plants. The emissions not only depend on the type of eco-region in which the reservoir is located but also on the reservoir characteristics and water quality parameters. This paper reports the results of the impact of reservoir parameters and water quality characteristics on GHG emission from tropical, temperate and boreal reservoirs. For this purpose, linear equations are developed but the regression coeffi cient is found very poor. The R2 range for CO2 is 5×10-5 to 0.36 for tropical, temperate and boreal reservoirs and the R2 ranges for CH4 is 0.004- 0.244 respectively, which is far lower than 0.90, and cannot be accurately used for prediction. Thereafter, empirical regression equations are developed to see the combined impact of reservoir parameters and R2 is found as 0.48 for CO2 and 0.16 for CH4 for tropical, 0.34 and 0.37 for CO2 and CH4 respectively for temperate and 0.51 and 0.26 for boreal reservoirs. The R2< 0.90 indicates that these equations cannot be used to accurately predict the emissions, but can be used to get some idea about emissions from the reservoirs.

Keywords: Greenhouse gases, hydropower reservoir, eco-region, emissions

Amit Kumar and M. P. Sharma View PDF 37-42
Application of Hydrosuction Sediment Removal System (HSRS) on Peaking Ponds

The value of the peaking hour energy is very high in Nepal where people are facing more than 16 hours load shedding in a day during the dry period. Currently, the peak load demand is about 90% higher than the off peak load demand. Therefore, a storage type hydropower project plays a significant role in the Nepalese energy sector and decides the fate of load shedding. However, the Reservoir sedimentation studies in Nepal show that the capacity of the reservoirs has been reduced significantly; hence, preservation of these reservoirs is a vital issue. The hydro suction sediment removal system (HSRS) is one of the methods to remove sediment from the reservoirs. A modified double layer suction head of HSRS was used in a field test of HSRS at the Settling Basin of Sunkoshi Small Hydropower Plant (SSHP) and Peaking Pond of the Sunkoshi Hydropower Plant (SHP). This paper presents field test results in the settling basin of SSHP and peaking pond of SHP and applicability of HSRS in the Kulekhani Reservoir and other peaking ponds in Nepal.

Keywords: Hydro suction Sediment Removal System (HSRS), ponds, settling basin, reservoir, Nepal

H. S. Shrestha View PDF  43-48
A Review of Riverbed Extraction and its Effects on Aquatic Environment with Special Reference to Tinau River, Nepal

Rivers not only maintain the ecological balance but also generate resources. Fishes and riverbed materials such as sand, cobble, pebble, boulders, etc. are the sources of income from natural rivers; and these are the important resources in the construction industry.
There exist very few studies on the effects of riverbed extraction in the rivers like Tinau. The lack of generic Hydrological and climatic data in the river catchment leads to the lack of knowhow regarding the hydrological behavior of the river basin and its consequences over time. This study is the outcome of the literature review on riverbed extraction and its effects on the aquatic environment particularly in the Tinau River. Riverbed extraction can cause many effects on the environment. But this paper mainly focuses on the effects of riverbed extraction on the hydraulic structures, ground water, river morphology, cost externalization, fish species and fisheries for livelihood.

Keywords: Riverbed extraction, Tinau River, river morphology, cost externalization, aquatic environment, Nepal

Khet Raj Dahal, Subodh Sharma and Chhatra Mani Sharma View PDF  49-56
Environmental Management of Inle Lake in Myanmar

The Inle Lake, the second-largest lake in Myanmar, is located in Shan State in Myanmar. More than 170,000 people inhabit the lake and its surroundings, and their main business is agriculture with the floating gardens. Due to its picturesque siting and diverse fauna, combined with the unique lifestyles and traditions of human inhabitants, the lake is considered as one of the primary tourist destinations in Myanmar. The Inle is not only designated as the 190th World’s Eco-region but also nominated as one of the fresh water biodiversity hotspots. Since the last decade, the lake has been facing serious threats due to natural and man-made pressure leading to the deterioration of its water quality and shrinkage of the open water area. According to the assessment of its water quality in 2012, the trophic state index of the Inle Lake is found to be in the range of eutrophication.
The present paper aims to identify the problems based on data collected from the lake authorities and prepare a management plan for its conservation. The estimated cost is 31.18 million US$ and is expected to improve the lake health significantly, if the conservation plan is implemented by the government in the true sense.

Keywords: Trophic State Index (TSI), eutrophication, environmental management, water quality, Myanmar

Zaw Lwin and M.P. Sharma View PDF  57-60
Rainwater Harvesting for Recharging Groundwater and Local Water Management in Kathmandu Valley
Jeewan P. Thanju View PDF  61-63
Low Head Pico-hydro: A Robust Rural Renewable Energy Technology For Remote Rural Areas

The rural electrification is the most needed pill for equitable economic and environmental development of Nepal. However, it comes with great challenges. The cost involved for grid extension, availability of power in grid and pre-condition required for alternate energy options for affordable rural energy supply significantly hinders the process of rural electrification. The low-head Pico-hydro is a promising technology which has positioned itself in a special niche of renewable energy technologies and is very important to address the problems Nepal is currently facing.

Keywords: Low head Pico-hydro, reliable rural electrification, energy market, environmental sustainability(OIP)

Biraj Gautam View PDF 64-66
Climate Change Impact on Flow Regimes of Rivers in Bhutan and Possible Consequences for Hydropower Development
Stein Beldring and Astrid VoksØ View PDF 67-71
Rio+20: What is ‘The Future We want?
Ong Suan Ee View PDF 74-76
Activities of Jalsrot Vikas Sanstha (JVS)
Jalsrot Vikas Sanstha (JVS) View PDF 75-76
Conclusion of a JVS Forum:
Refute the World Bank’s Ganges Strategic Basin Assessment Report
Upendra Gautam View PDF 77
An Interview with Dr. Subarna Das Shrestha, President, IPPAN
Dr. Subarna Das Shrestha View PDF 78-80


Topics PDF Pages
Book Review: Kathmandu Valley Groundwater Outlook
View PDF 72-73
View PDF 81-85