HYDRO Nepal Journal – Issue 14(January 2014)

Table of Contents
Editorial PDF Pages
Develop Electricity Projects and Transmission lines in a ‘War Footing’
View PDF 1
Articles Authors PDF Pages
Hydropower Development in Nepal: Five Month Reflections
Christopher Butler View PDF 8-9
What’s Ailing Indian Energy Markets ?
Bishal Thapa View PDF 10-12
Hydropower Development in India
C.V.J. Varma and Tanushree
View PDF 13-15
Rationale of Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project for Reduction of Energy Crisis and Mitigating the Impact ...

The proposed 315m high dam Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project (PMP) is a bi-national scheme on the Mahakali River that forms the border between Nepal and India. In the first week of July 2013, flooding on the Mahakali River caused extensive damages in district headquarter of Darchula district of Nepal and downstream area. The implementation of the proposed Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project (6480+240 MW) could solve the current energy crisis, provide flood control, and generate reliable source of revenue from the export of hydropower for both Nepal and India. However, despite the possible advantages, PMP is still only a plan 18 years after its initiation with the 1996 Mahakali Treaty ratified by the Nepalese parliament. Therefothere, Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project should be jointly developed as soon as possible for the mutual benefit of both nations.

Keywords: Hydropower, Mahakali River, Pancheshwar project, Nepal, India

Moti Bahadur Kunwar View PDF  16-20
Creative Destruction and the HIDCL
Christopher Butler View PDF  21-22
Prediction of Turbine Needed For Future Hydropower Projects In Nepal

: As Nepal holds significant potential for a prosperous future market in hydropower and associated business developments, the Turbine Testing Lab (TTL) at Kathmandu University, Nepal has carried out a project that focuses on scientific studies to identify optimal turbine requirements for various hydropower projects. We collected and analyzed basic design data available from different sources to identify the turbine design specifications for the upcoming hydropower projects. As a result, we developed a computer program as a tool to support this work. Findings from the current studies have shown that up to 60% of the 13000 MW capacity hydropower projects under survey stage in Nepal would need Francis type of turbine with unit size below 5 MW. This finding is also supportive to establish a basis for developing turbine manufacturing and maintenance competence in Nepal from business perspectives.

Keywords: hydropower, turbine selection, Francis turbine, turbine manufacturing, Nepal

Subash Panta, Manish Lamsal, Bhola Thapa and Biraj Singh Thapa View PDF 23-26
Numerical Modeling of Nonuniform Flow in Settling Basins

The settling basins for hydropower plants are designed to remove suspended sediments from the water flow. The inlet geometry of the settling basin may cause formation of recirculation zones and high turbulence, which may lead to diminished trap efficiency, and as a consequence, turbine erosion. Most analytic approaches for calculating the trap efficiency of settling basins are based on the assumption of a uniform flow; hence, simplified one-dimensional equations are used to determine the velocity distribution and the turbulence characteristics of the flow. However, the velocity field in settling basins is often unevenly distributed, and the simplified equations are not always applicable. This study describes a new method for improving the assessment of settling basin performance. The idea is to extract values for the velocity distribution and the turbulence characteristics along the settling basins from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. The extracted CFD values are then used as input parameters to the standard analytical approaches for calculation of settling basin trap efficiency. This promising method is tested on a case study of a physical model of the settling basin for the Lower Manang Marsyangdi Hydropower Project in Nepal. The CFD calculations turn out to provide additional information to the sedimentation calculations in settling basins, and are useful for the assessment of different design alternatives at an early stage.

Keywords: Settling basin, trap efficiency, CFD, hydropower, Nepal

Hanne Nøvik, Abha Dudhraj, Professor Nils ReidarBøe Olsen, Dr. Meg B Bishwakarma and Professor Leif Lia View PDF  27-35
Norwegian Design Principle for High Pressure Tunnels and Shafts:Its Applicability in the Himalaya

Cost effective, safe and long term sustainable hydropower development is key for the lasting economic growth in the Himalayan region. Increasing pressure towards the use of renewal and environmentally friendly energy for industrial growth and daily household use will force the Himalayan region to exploit hydropower energy more extensively. The traditionally used design approach of fully lined underground waterway system is costly and financially unfeasible as well as an obstacle to attract investment in the hydropower sector in the Himalaya. Hence, more innovative solutions are needed to make hydro generated energy more cost effective and as a sustainable energy solution in the long term. This paper briefly describes the geological set-up of Scandinavia, history of Norwegian Hydropower and reviews the design principle used to develop the underground waterway system in Norway. Brief comments are also made on the applicability of these principles in the Himalayan region. It is anticipated that more discussions will be made in the future on the geo-tectonic environment of the Himalaya and suitability of Norwegian design principle in the Himalayan region.

Keywords: Tunneling, Himalayan geology, Norwegian design principles, hydropower, Nepal

Krishna Kanta Panthi View PDF  36-40
Foreign Direct Investment in Nepal’s Hydropower Development

The fund for Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is globally limited and overstretched. Therefore, Nepal needs to go the extra mile in offering a competitive investment environment to attract FDI flows into Nepal’s hydropower development. It literally means that our investment policies and laws should be more competitive compared to that of other countries like Vietnam, Cambodia and Bangladesh etc.

Keywords: FDI, power development agreement, hydropower, Nepal

Pradeep Gangol View PDF  41-48
Importance of Contract Administration for Timely Construction of Hydropower Projects without Disputes

Most of the large hydropower projects in the region have been behind schedule than agreed in the contracts. Such delays besides project cost overrun cause direct economic loss to the countries in the form of interest costs, loss of energy revenues and loss in industrial production due to shortage of power. With delays, the Contractor finds ways for claim for additional time and cost. Such a situation may be the result of poor contract administration & management skills. Therefore, a fair and just administration of the contract is key to the successful performance of the contract on time, with respect to both budget and quality with minimum dispute events.

Keywords: Contract administration, claim, disputes, time and cost overrun, quality

Gyanendra P. Kayastha View PDF  49-52
Strategic Planning for Operation of Large Hydropower Plants

Electricity is an integral part of modern life. The main sources of power generation continue to be the fossil fuels which are largely responsible for global warming. In view of environmental concerns, there is increasing awareness on judicious use of natural resources, including water. Large hydroelectric power plants are generally multi-purpose projects and require huge quantities of water for their operation. Usually the generating units in a hydroelectric power plant are put in operation to meet the electrical load demand without considering the efficiency of the units, which can lead to excessive water use. It is now need of the hour to pay more attention to optimizing the utilization of water in hydroelectric power plants.
This paper presents strategic planning for optimal operation of large hydroelectric power plants. Large variation in efficiency of a Francis turbine forms the basis of proposed methodology in which turbines are operated at maximum efficiency. In one approach, discharge is minimized for constant load operation thus conserving water. In another approach, generation is maximized with the same quantity of water. The fringe benefits include creation of operating reserve and availability of additional reactive power in the generator.

Keywords: Strategic planning, short term generation scheduling, hydro turbine efficiency, operating reserve, frequency control

Shambhu Ratan Awasthi, Vishnu Prasad and Saroj Rangnekar View PDF  53-58
Cross-border Downstream Benefit Sharing in Reservoir Type Hydropower Projects: Case of Budhi Gandaki Storage Project in Nepal

This paper analyses the role of the principle of downstream benefit sharing under international water law regime in the management of cross-border water courses. This paper argues that the principle of downstream benefit sharing may play a key role in wiping away the long-existing distrust between countries as well as hold the potential to usher in a new phase of cooperation between riparian neighboring countries, such as Nepal and India. If pursued in good faith the downstream benefit principle would enjoin erstwhile losers of the vast potential to a cooperative mechanism where they could find themselves in a win-win situation.The Budhi Gandaki Storage Project presents a unique opportunity for employing this new paradigm of cooperation between two countries: Nepal and India. In this paper, we present the example of India that is facing a water and energy crisis for which it may ease to a considerable extent its problem by depending on Nepal for these resources. Downstream benefit sharing may provide India an opportunity to gain the confidence of the Nepalese people for developing many hydro projects with or without water augmentation resulting into multiple benefits downstream in India. Employing the downstream benefit sharing principle might require revisiting treaties like Gandak Project Agreement.

Keywords: Storage project, downstream benefit principle, trans-boundary water cooperation, Nepal.

Surya Nath Upadhyay and Prakash Gaudel View PDF 59-64
Regional Modeling for Estimation of Runoff from Ungauged Catchments: Case Study of the Saptakoshi Basin, Nepal

In a mountainous country like Nepal, most of the gauge stations are located at low altitudes, and getting reliable hydrological data at intake sites, most of which are located at high mountains, is difficult. The main objective of the study is to apply the ENKI model system in a regional calibration of the Saptakoshi Basin and to test the reliability of the model in this area and extract the runoff at ungauged sites. ENKI is a modular framework to implement hydrological models, which operates on distributed data within a spatial region. Models can be created by a set of user-defined subroutines to custom design the functionality, and the model can be calibrated in a region making it suitable for prediction in ungauged catchments. Climatic data from 1999 to 2008 are used for the model calibration in the Saptakoshi Basin. While processing data, some errors and inconsistencies in the flow data were found, and this reduced the potential calibration sites in the catchment. The results showed that the modeled discharge of independent and upstream catchments were well in agreement with observed data, while less agreement was found with downstream basins where observed data were inconsistent. Good quality observation data and the availability of enough data govern the quality of the simulation with the model, so the importance of data quality cannot be disregarded. Finally, the obtained regional parameters were applied to extract the runoff data at the intake site of the Tamor hydropower plant. Further improvement of simulation results can be achieved with good quality of data and thus uncertainties in the parameters can be reduced. Even though there are some uncertainties in the results of model, the conclusion of this study is that the regional model, ENKI, could be a very helpful tool to predict the hydrological variables at the ungauged basins in a mountainous country like Nepal.

Keywords: Regional modeling, ENKI, ungauged catchments, Saptakoshi Basin, Nepal

Jayandra Prasad Shrestha, Knut Alfredsen and Netra Timalsina View PDF 65-72
Sustainability of Bhutan's Hydropower

Bhutan’s river potential for hydropower has been estimated at~30,000 MW, the majority of which is concentrated in the Wangchhu, Punatsangchhu, Mangdechhu and Drangmechhu river basins. Hydropower forms the backbone of Bhutan’s socio-economic strength: Ninety nine percentage of its electricity supply comes from hydropower generation and hydropower alone contributes of national revenue. Bhutan has been cast as a model in South Asia for its environmental conservation policy. However, the impacts of climate change are becoming evident in the form of fast-retreating glaciers and erratic precipitation patterns that will prove to be costly for the hydropower sector as the country continues to bank on this renewable natural resource.

Keywords: Hydropower, GLOF, dams, biodiversity, climate change, glaciers, IWRM, Bhutan

Gongsar Karma Chhopel View PDF  73-76
The 400 kV Dhalkebar-Muzaffarpur 140 km Transmission Line

About eight years ago, in mid-2006, the Minister of Water Resources Gyanendra Bahadur Karki took the initiative to develop Indo-Nepal cross-border high voltage transmission lines for mutual benefit. As a result, in January 2007, Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) and Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services (IL&FS) signed an MOU for the construction of four 220 kV cross border transmission lines. The Butwal-Gorakhpur and Duhabi- Purnea interconnections were slotted for immediate construction in the first phase. Nepal’s short term aim was to rid itself from load shedding during the dry season and, in the long term, create an environment to attract national andinternational investors to develop Nepal’s hydropower.
After eight years of Indo-Nepal labor at three Power Exchange Committee (PEC) meetings and four Joint Committee on Water Resources (JCWR) meetings, the Butwal-Gorakhpur and Duhabi-Purnea interconnections were laid aside and a special purpose vehicle was established for a 400 kV Dhalkebar-Muzaffarpur (D-M) transmission line. Contrary to the vision of the January 2007 MOU, the construction of the D-M line came attached with a special condition: that NEA enter into a Power Sale Agreement with the Power Trading Corporation of India for the purchase of 150 MW of power for a 25-year period. NEA concluded this power sale agreement on 12th December 2011 with the 150 MW power scheduled to be delivered by June 12, 2015, 42 months after signing of agreement. At the 6th JCWR meeting of November 2011, Nepal pointed out that the draft MOU on Interconnections and Cross-border Power Trading had already been sent to MEA (India’s Ministry of External Affairs). But two years later at the 7th JCWR meeting of January 2013, India informed Nepal that ‘the process would take a little more time in spite of continuous follow up because the proposed MOU was a new idea to the concerned agencies of Government of India.’ With only 18 months remaining for the scheduled delivery of 150 MW power, Nepal has recently awarded Tata Projects Ltd. the contract for constructing the 40 km Dhalkebar to Nepal portion of the D-M line. The contract for the 100 km Muzaffarpur/India portion of transmission line is reportedly soon to be awarded. However, India has still not yet given its official concurrence to the MOU on Interconnections and Cross-border Power Trading. This article will chronicle the PEC and JCWR dialogues about the D-M line attempt to analyze the intricacies of Indo-Nepal power trading and suggest a way forward for mutual benefit of the two countries.

Keywords: Cross boarder power trading, Dhalkebar–Muzaffarpur, Transmission line, Power Exchange Committee Nepal, India

SB Pun View PDF  77-82


Topics PDF Pages
Excillence Award
View PDF 83