HYDRO Nepal Journal – Issue 9 (July 2011)

Table of Contents
Editorial PDF Pages
Articles Authors PDF Pages
Lessons from Hydropower Rich Paraguay

Despite Paraguay being one of the largest net exporters of electricity in the world (for decades and the main electricity exporter in South America accounting for 85% of all exports), it is the second poorest nation in South America after Bolivia. It is the half owner of the 14,000MW Itaipu hydro electric complex. Paraguay gets a small frac¬tion of the market price for the exported electricity to Brazil. The Brazilians viewpoint is that the spirit of the treaty is to recover the investment cost and not the commercial price. Hence, there is widespread discontent among the Para¬guayans. One Paraguayan minister has commented that it is a real politik of an ant staring at an elephant. Likewise, in Yacyretá, a 3,100MW hydroelectric plant constructed in association with Argentina, Paraguay is not get¬ting a good return. Construction work was stopped for several years by Argentina due to various reasons. Further, planning and feasibility studies were not done in sufficient detail. It is claimed that environmental and ecological con¬siderations were not undertaken in its planning.
Paraguay has not sufficiently benefited from the two huge bi-national hydro power projects. Experience of Paraguay may be good lessons for small but hydropower rich countries such as Nepal. Nepalese Officials dreaming to earn several tens of billions Rupees as export revenue from the half the electricity to be owned by Nepal from the proposed Pancheshwar Dam (6,480MW) need to remember the case of Paraguay

Keywords: Itaipu hydro electric, export price of electricity, Yacyretá Dam, Paraguay

Jeewan Prasad Thanju, Ricardo Canese View PDF 7-11
Development and Strategy of Small Hydropower in China

China is endowed with rich rural hydropower. According to the latest National Rural Water Resources Survey, the technically feasible potential amounts to 128GW, mainly distributed in the central and west part of China as well as those ethic regions, which are less developed but more populated. With the support of the Chinese gov¬ernment’s policy of ‘Self Construction, Self Management and Self Utilization’, Small Hydropower development has been scaled up. Thanks to the Small Hydropower (SHP) development and the grid construction, nowadays about one half of the territory, one third of the counties and 300 million rural population in China have access to electricity. The practice of China to realize rural electrification through SHP has attracted the attention of the world community including the United Nations. In future, China will continue to enhance the rural hydropower development and the environmental protection under the framework of the Renewable Energy Master Plan. Its experiences and technology could be learned by other developing countries.

Keywords: Small hydropower (SHP), rural electrification, development strategy, China

Liu Heng, Hu Xiaobo View PDF 12-14
India’s Nuclear Power Development and Nepal’s Hydropower after the Fukushima Accident

When President George W. Bush and Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh signed the Indo-US Nuclear Declaration in 2005 and subsequently the Nuclear Suppliers Group waived off the embargo on India in 2008, there were tremors in Nepal that her hydropower would be displaced by India’s nuclear power plants. Nepal’s two quick hydropower plans – 10,000MW in 10 Years and 25,000MW in 20 Years – may be interpreted as indication of that tremor. But is India really banking on Nepal’s so called ‘huge’ hydropower potential? In a mere two decades, by 2032, India is planning to have 63,000MW of installed nuclear power. Will the recent Fukushima nuclear accident in Japan have any impact on her ambitious nuclear power development? To understand the issues, this article deals with India’s interesting nuclear history that had to innovate and indigenize when the ‘embargo’ was imposed after the 1974 Pokhran nuclear explosion. The article argues that the fast developing India is after Nepal’s stored water, that valuable resource getting increasingly scarce. Hydropower for her is a mere by-product, perhaps a bonus if she can get it at a cheap rate!

Keywords: Nuclear power, hydropower, Fukushima incident, India, Nepal

Sant Bahadur Pun View PDF 15-19
Short Term Hydro Thermal Scheduling using Lambda Gamma Iteration Method

Short term hydrothermal scheduling (STHTS) is a daily planning proposition in power system operation. The main purpose of hydro thermal generation scheduling is to minimize the overall operation cost and to satisfy the given constraints by optimally scheduling the power outputs of all hydro and thermal units under study periods, given electrical load and limited water resource. This paper presents the lambda-gamma iteration method for fixed head hydro-thermal problems. Also, hydro power input-output model with constant head has been developed for Sewa Hydro Electric Power Plant by using the curve fitting techniques by least square method in MATLAB 7.9 ver¬sion software. From scheduling results, operational decisions can be made for the best performance under changing conditions of load, head, unit availability and other important constraints. Furthermore, these decisions may be used as an effective input to the on-line decision support system for real-time operation of reservoir systems in availability based tariff (ABT) context that results in increased power production and enhanced revenue earnings in the process of planning and management of a water resources project.

Keywords: Hydro-thermal scheduling, lambda-gamma iteration method, hydro power input-output model, availability based tariff, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Deepika Yadav, R. Naresh, V.K. Sarda, Veena Sharma, Paras Mani Goel View PDF  20-26
Engineering Geological Design of Underground Works for Upper Madi Hydroelectric Project

Himalayan geology is termed as one of the youngest tectonic formations in the world. Tunneling in this region is hence complex in nature. The very complex geology in the region offers challenges in stability of even the best located underground structures. Tunneling in weak rock is more challenging in terms of stability and applica¬tion of support. Moreover, in many occasion, prediction of the rock mass has been done optimistically in most of the underground projects in Nepal.
In this paper, predicted versus actual rock mass condition has been compared for two already completed projects. Based on this needed support is calculated by empirical method for the project under investigation and later on veri¬fied by numerical analysis using the software Phase2. Stability analysis is also done for both high pressure headrace tunnel and underground surge shaft. Numerical method of analysis has an added advantage over empirical and ana¬lytical methods, particularly in complex geometry. The Phase2 code and the Hoek-Brown Failure criterion have been used to determine the state of stress, strength factor and deformations around the periphery and in the tunnel walls.

Keywords: Himalayan Geology, rock mass, design of underground works, UMHEP (Upper Madi Hydroelectric Proj¬ect), numerical modelling, Nepal

Prem Krishna K.C., Krishna Kanta Panthi View PDF  27-34
Multi-Purpose Melamchi Project, Nepal
View PDF  35-37
Potential of Renewable Electricity from Biomass Waste of IIT Roorkee Campus, India

Electricity production using conventional energy sources is associated with serious environmental prob¬lems like emission of pollutants, global warming and social problems. The world’s CO2 emissions are projected to rise from 29.0 billion MT in 2006 to 33.1 billion MT in 2015 and 40.4 billion MT in 2030. This increase in emissions indicates more global warming. The Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has been supporting programs for the development of renewable energy sources which are not only unlimited but environmentally friendly — like biomass, solar, small hydro, wind, etc. If biomass is used sustainably, there is no net carbon emission over the time of a cycle of biomass production.
Waste management is an important issue today. To handle the ever growing problem of waste, residents and com-panies are constantly looking for the best and least expensive methods. Types of waste generated by the Indian In-stitute of Technology Roorkee (IITR) include kitchen waste, municipal solid waste, sewage waste, and waste cooking oil. By utilizing

Keywords: Kitchen waste, municipal solid waste, waste cooking oil, sewage waste, feasibility study, India

Nitesh Dutt, M.P. Sharma View PDF 38-43
Integrated Development of Rural Energy Systems through Pocket Area Approach for Energy Services: The REDP Experience, Nepal

Micro-hydro technologies together with other renewable energy technologies are being disseminated in various parts of Nepal to provide basic energy services as per the demand of the individual household or a particular community. These technologies use an integrated approach that helps address rural energy needs by providing basic rural energy services. The planning and implementation of rural energy systems in an integrated manner through the ‘Pocket Area Approach’, which takes into account the entire geographical area for the intervention, has been experimented in some of the pockets area in the country and is found quite effective to cater to basic rural energy services to the entire population of the area. This paper illustrates the approach and results achieved by Rural Energy Development Program (REDP).

Keywords: Micro-hydro, Participatory Rural Energy System, Pocket Area Approach, Nepal

Thakur Raj Devkota View PDF  44-47
The Unforgettable Indus River Flood-2010: A Review

Floods are the unannounced natural disasters that destroy both lives and infrastructures. In July 2010 a huge and unpredictable flood struck Pakistan, especially the catchment area of the River Indus, extending from the north part of Khyber Pakhtun Khwa (KPK) Province south to the Arabian Sea. The top five rainfall intensities recorded at Risalpur, Islamabad, Murree, Cherat and Ghari Dopatta were 415mm, 394mm, 373mm, 372mm and 346mm, respectively. The Indus Flood-2010 affected nearly 20 million people spreading over 36 districts of the country. The death toll recorded was nearly 1,800 persons. More than 10 million people were subjected to contaminated drinking water. The destruction to cotton, rice, sugar cane, and animal fodder was recorded as 3,000 km2, 800 km2, 800 km2, and 1000 km2, respectively. And about five hundred thousand tons of wheat was destroyed. The Indus Flood of 2010 caused an estimated 43 billion US dollar loss to Pakistan and adversely affected its Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It brought on both the financial crises and socio-political concerns (such as infiltration of the Taliban in the form of a relief supporter). Though this flood has left everlasting impacts on the people of Pakistan, they could be better handled if the government and relief agencies were more determined, honest and committed.

Keywords: Indus River, Flood of 2010, Rainfall intensity, flood damage statistics, Pakistan

Arshad Ali, Ghazala Nosheen, K.A. Khan View PDF  48-51
Rural Drinking Water Quality Status in Central Development Region, Nepal: A Comparative Study of Spring water and Ground water

This study assesses the rural drinking water quality status in Central Development Region of Nepal. With a total of 250 samples collected from 15 districts of the region, drinking water quality of spring water and ground water representing hill and Terai (lowland) regions were tested and compared for their physicochemical parameters and faecal coliform contamination.
None of the spring samples as well as ground water samples violated National Drinking Water Standards (NDWS) for electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), appearance, chloride and nitrate. Similarly none violated the standards for total hardness (TH) indicating soft nature of the water. The spring samples were within the NDWS for manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) whereas 15.4% and 39.0% of the ground water samples violated the standards for manganese and iron, respectively. Gravity water is found to be more alkaline than ground water. Faecal coliforms were the most problematic in both types of sources followed by Ammonia (NH3) and pH in spring sources and by iron, Mn, pH and ammonia in ground water sources, respectively. Spring sources were more contaminated by bacteria than ground water sources. Correlation and regression analysis revealed highly sig¬nificant correlations between EC and TDS (r=0.979) and between CaH and TH (r=0.988) in ground water suggesting that aquifer chemistry of ground water to be mainly controlled by EC, TDS, TH, and CaH. Similarly, highly significant correlations were found between the following pairs in gravity water: EC and TDS (r=0.983), TA and TDS(r=0.853), CaH and TDS (r=0.912), TH and TDS (r=0.955), EC and CaH (r=0.898), and between CaH and TH (r=0.951).

Keywords: Rural Drinking Water Quality, Spring water, Ground Water, NDWS (National Drinking Water Standards), Nepal

Bishnu Pandey, Suman Shakya View PDF  52-56
The Concept of Wastes to Energy Using Sugary Wastes

This study was designed using actual effluent from the sugary mills in an Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Reactor to evaluate treatability performance. The reactor was started-up in step-wise loading rates begin-ning from 0.05kg carbon oxygen demand (COD)/m3-day to 3.50kg-COD/m3-day. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) was slowly decreased from 96 hrs to eight hrs. It was observed that the removal efficiency of COD of more than 73% can be easily achieved at an HRT of more than 16 hours corresponding to an average organic loading rate (OLR) of 3.0kg-COD/m3-day, at neutral pH and constant temperature of 29oC. The average VFAs (volatile fatty acids) and biogas production was observed as 560mg/L and 1.6L/g-CODrem-d, respectively. The average methane composition was estimated as 62%. The results of this study suggest that the treatment of sugar mills effluent with the anaerobic technology seems to be more reliable, effective and economical.

Keywords: Anaerobic digestion, sugary wastes, carbon oxygen demand, biogas, Pakistan

Fiza Sarwar, Wajeeha Malik, Muhammad Salman Ahmed, Harja Shahid View PDF 57-62
Hydropower Potential of Montenegro

As the existing total hydropower potential of Montenegro is outdated, an attempt is made to re estimate the potential and also to assess the possibility of the utilization of the total hydropower potential in Montenegro in newly created conditions and opportunities. The methodology used is based on energy potential for each watercourse individually taking account of the total amount of water from precipitation and transit waters at the territory of Mon¬tenegro. This paper for the first time integrally analyses hydropower potential in both gauged and ungauged major watercourses and their tributaries. It provides insight into the total hydropower potential and
technically exploitable hydropower potential for both Run-of-River and storage projects, which may serve as a good basis for strategic plan¬ning of exploitation of this resource. It bears specific importance since hydropower exploitation of the remaining 82% of this potential is expected in the near future. The technically exploitable hydropower potential is assessed as 9840 GWh in a year.

Keywords: Hydropower potential, Electricity, Theoretical model, Hydropower plants, Montenegro

Mitrovic Ratko View PDF 63-68
Interview with Mr. Gokarna Bista, Honorable Minister, Ministry of Energy, Government of Nepal
Mr. Gokarna Bista View PDF 72-75


Topics PDF Pages
Rainwater Harvesting Capacity Center (RHCC)
View PDF 76
Vittual Water in Food Production
View PDF 78
Gravity Ropeway and Tuin Technology- An Alternative Transportation
View PDF 79-80
Trends in Hydropower Development in Nepal
View PDF 81
International News
View PDF 84-86
National News
View PDF 87-88