HYDRO Nepal Journal – Issue 5 (July 2009)

Table of Contents
Articles Authors PDF Pages
Tanakpur Barrage
Thirteen Year Saga of the Nepal Canal Sill Level

The Tanakpur Barrage was constructed by India in the 1980s on her territory on the Mahakali river, as an “alternative” to the aging 1920 Sarada barrage, to irrigate 1.61 million hectares of land in India. The sill level of the Tanakpur regulator for the Nepal canal is EL 245 meters, which is 3.5 meters (11.5 feet) higher than the sill level for the corresponding regulator for India. India stresses that specified quantity of water flow for Nepal will be assured as the pond level of the barrage for power generation will be maintained at EL 246.7 meters. Such promises were made on the Gandak barrage, which also has a powerhouse on the canal, but as the pond level was not maintained, Nepal never got the specified quantity of water from the Gandak barrage. Over the last 13 years, India has been totally deaf to Nepal’s request to lower the sill level. Instead, India, argues that the Tanakpur regulator for Nepal was already “constructed in 1992 before the treaty.” India’s modus operandi, whether for the Farakka, Tanakpur, or Laxmanpur barrages or the Mahali Sagar, Rasiawal-Khurd-Lotan, Kalkalwa-Holiya bunds, has always been to construct first then, over the years, formalize it. Like many of the structures along the Indo-Nepal border, if Nepal does not take a firm stand then the Nepal canal sill level at Tanakpur is heading to be another fait accompli, for Nepal.

Keywords: Tanakpur barrage, sill level, Sarada barrage, Mahakali Treaty, India, Nepal

SB Pun View PDF 2-7
West Seti Hydroelectric Project: Assessment of its Contribution to Nepal’s Economic Development

The proposed West Seti Hydroelectric Project, 750 MW, is one of the best projects of its genre, because it will not only generate peak-in energy and good quality power but because it will do so at low cost and, furthermore, its implementation will result in flood control and dry season augmented flow for lower riparian areas. Moreover, export of hydropower to India from this project will result in a carbon offset benefit which is tradable on the carbon market and has potential as a good source of revenue. This paper evaluates such benefits and also ascertains to whom such benefits accrue, besides identifying costs (so far unaccounted for). This project’s contribution to Nepal’s economic development may even be higher by a magnitude if it is to be structured as suggested in this paper.

Keywords: West Seti, carbon offset, downstream benefit, economic development, export, hydropower, peak-in power, Nepal

Ratna Sansar Shrestha View PDF 8-17
Nepal-India Power Exchange: A Critical Review

Nepal-India power exchange has long been taking place. The effectiveness of the exchange scenario, however, is not very encouraging. The main reason for this is the lack of physical infrastructures and sound power transaction modalities. In this article, Nepal-India power exchange is critically reviewed with regards to the physical infrastructures and in the Nepalese perspectives.

Keywords: Power exchange, power pool, transmission lines, grids, AC, HVDC, load shedding, synchronization

Subhash K. Mishra View PDF 18-20
Planning and Implementation of Small Hydropower (SHP) Projects

Small hydropower project is a clean source of power, which India has in abundance. Small hydropower projects are site specific and need careful planning for project formulation and implementation. In this paper an attempt is made to discuss types of small hydropower schemes and present a methodology on planning and implementation of small hydropower projects.

Keywords: Feasibility, investigations, planning, project formulation, small hydropower.

S.K. Singal View PDF 21-25
Tehri Dam: An Engineering Marvel

Despite repeated controversy over implementing high dams in the Himalayan region, the Government of India has completed the first stage of Tehri Dam hydroelectric project with power generating capacity of 1,000 MW. Being the third dam of its kind after Bhakra and Pong in India, Tehri Dam has faced several social, legal and engineering challenges. Most of them may be lessons for the whole Himalayan region including Nepal. The Tehri Dam Project was initiated in 1970s with technical support from the USSR. Later, with the establishment of Tehri Hydro Development Corporation, the project was resumed with new dimensions to be developed in three stages: Tehri Dam Project with 1,000 MW in Stage 1, Koteshwar Power Plant with 400 MW capacity in Stage-2, and Tehri Pump Storage Plant with 1,000 MW capacity providing altogether 2,400 MW of clean hydro electric energy in Stage-3. The first stage project was commissioned in 2006 while the second stage is under construction. The major outcome of the Tehri Dam Project is its successful implementation of rehabilitation and resettlement plans through the establishment of the New Tehri town in the Garhwal hills and adjacent areas. This article shares the technical innovation of Tehri Dam Project from socio-engineering perspective.

Keywords: Tehri Dam Project, storage hydropower project, rehabilitation and resettlement, India

Basistha Raj Adhikari View PDF 26-30
Water Quality Assessment of the Godavari River

The Godavari River is a second largest river in India originating from Trimbakeswar, Nasik, Maharashtra, India. It flows through the states of Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh. The river, passing through Nasik City, is 82% polluted by domestic pollution and 18% by industries. The study covers about 65 km of the river starting from Kushawart Trimbakeswar to Saikheda Village, from where it enters the city. Ten locations were selected for collection of water samples from the river and the samples were analyzed for water quality parameters in the Environmental Laboratory of the Maharashtra Pollution Control Board (MPCB), Nasik. These data as well as data from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) were used to compute the National Sanitation Foundation Water Quality Index (NSFWQI), mostly applicable in the USA and India. The results of NSFWQI of Godavari River indicates its water quality as ‘bad’ (26-50) or ‘medium’ (51- 70) over the study stretch. The NSFWQI of December 2007 and February 2008 indicate an improvement in water quality at all locations over earlier data from 2002-07. Based upon the results, the existing conservation measures have been reviewed and additional measures are suggested. The study concludes that major stressor is sewage pollution.

Keywords: Water quality parameters, water quality assessment, water quality management, conservation measures

Ajay D. Chavan, M.P.Sharma and Renu Bhargava View PDF 31-34
Need to Review the West Seti Dam Design

The proposed 195 meter high concrete faced rock fildam (one of the highest of its kind) in West Seti Hydroelectric Project in Nepal will impound 1,500 million cubic meters of water. High CFRD dams were only recently constructed since 1980s. Nepal’s Ministry of Energy must constitute a panel of experts of high standing in the field of dam/river engineering to seek their advice on the West Seti Project. Engineering aspects of the project must be reviewed before taking the final decision to implement the project. Similarly, the growing concerns echoed through the media about the sharing of downstream benefits and problems of submergence of Nepalese territory resulting from the Laxmanpur barrage, which is a direct extension of the West Seti Project, must also be properly addressed.

Keywords: West Seti Hydroelectric Project, CFRD dam design, Nepal

AB Thapa View PDF 35-36
Does Economic Growth in Nepal Cause Electricity Consumption

This article examines the causal relationship between the per capita electricity consumption and the per capita real GDP (natural logarithm) during the period 1980-2006 in Nepal using co-integration and vector error correction model. According to the findings, there is a unidirectional causality from per capita real GDP to per capita electricity consumption. Results show that per capita electricity consumption does not cause per capita real GDP. There is an important policy implication of the findings. It is important because it has significant implications from the point of view of energy conservation, Green House Gas emission reduction and economic development. Energy conservation if the government or the power utility industry approves the appropriate national policy for entering into the practical action will enhance economic development in a sustainable basis.

Keywords: Co-integration, unit-root, causality, energy conservation, electricity consumption, economic growth, Nepal

Kamal Raj Dhungel View PDF 37-41
Constructed Wetland: A Solution for Wastewater Treatment

Due to population explosion, rapid industrialization and urbanization, Nepal’s limited source of water is polluted (especially in the Kathmandu Valley). The quality of water is vital concern, as it is directly linked with human welfare. The water that we use for our survival should be potable, clean, and free of impurities. To mitigate the problem of water pollution, low-cost natural treatment options like Constructed Wetlands (CW) and the related Reed Bed Treatment System (RBT) have been introduced in Nepal in several places like hospitals, universities and other institutions, and as community systems. The plant species Phragmites karka is used in this process. It, and other associated micro organisms removes contaminates from wastewater using a natural process. Compared to other large and expensive technologies, CW and RBT require less land and are less expensive for construction, operation and maintenance. Hence, they can be considered as effective, economic and environmentally friendly and sustainable systems for wastewater treatment.

Keywords: Wastewater treatment, constructed wetlands (CW), reed bed treatment (RBT), Nepal

Dibesh Shrestha and Shovana Maharjan View PDF 42-45
Treatment Feasibility of NSSC Pulping Effluent using UASB Reactor

The safe disposal of black liquor generating from Neutral Sulfide Semi-Chemical pulping section of the paper mills is one of the challenging issue in the developing countries. A treatment feasibility study was conducted on a laboratory scale UASB (Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor running on continuous flow basis for about 30 weeks at neutral pH and at constant temperature of 33°C. It is observed that about 35% of black-liquor COD could be reduced at a hydraulic retention time of 38 hours and at an organic loading rate of 2.75 kg-COD/m3-day. The average gas production and methane gas conversion at optimum conditions was observed to be 0.17 m3/kg-CODrem-day and 0.88 L-CH4/g-CODrem-day, respectively. The overall methane composition was noticed to be 61% of the biogas. This study suggests that the post-treatment of NSSC pulping effluent is required to meet the safe effluent disposal standards.

Keywords: NSSC pulping, UASB, anaerobic digestion, lignin-COD, Pakistan

Arshad Ali, Hashim Nisar Hashmi, Inthikhab Ahmad Querashi, and Athar Saeed View PDF 46-49
“Interview with Dr. Prakash Sharan Mahat”
Dr. Prakash Sharan Mahat View PDF 52-53
Village Development through Hydropower

This paper proposes a new model to develop small hydropower on the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) model, by developing one small hydro project in a district under the auspices of local institutions such as the District Development Committee (DDC), Village Development Committee (VDC), municipality, etc., in partnership with an entrepreneur or the Federation of Nepalese Chambers of Commerce and Industries. This model will create wealth for the villages of the district; and local institutions need not look to the Nepal government for the development grant. Hydropower is the best means to bring in development that the local people aspire for. As hydro development requires infrastructure building of roads, transmission lines etc., it will open the door of opportunity in the district for rapid growth. At the beginning, 1-5 MW size is proposed and in later stages larger sizes can be attempted. As the entrepreneur puts in equity at the beginning, and only after project operation, shares are given to the locals. A share structure of 70:30 is proposed for the entrepreneur and the local institutions respectively.

Keywords: Public-Private Partnership, small hydropower, Nepal

Gyanendra Lal Pradhan View PDF 54-55
3D Flow Modeling of the First Trifurcation Made in Nepal

The foremost objective of the study was to find out the most efficient profile of trifurcation in given constraints of pressure, velocity and layout of the overall geometry. The study was done for the 3.2 MW Madi Khola Hydropower Project of Gandaki Hydropower Development Co. Pvt. Ltd. The 3 Dimensional Flow modeling of the trifurcation was based on the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD).
The loss in the Trifurcation greatly depends upon its geometrical configuration. The research started with a general profile and the flow pattern generated inside it was studied with the help of 3 Dimensional Flow modeling .The extent of vortex zone formation inside the trifurcation indicates the loss inside trifurcation. The profile of the trifurcation was hence changed to reduce the vortex formation as far as possible, till we get minimum possible loss. The profile under study should meet maximum flow efficiency under the physical constraints of fabrication. The flow efficient profile was then analyzed to capture the stress amplification near junction. The reinforcing element in the form of steel T-section was added of different sectional values till the stress was within allowable limits under severe conditions.

Keywords: Symmetrical Trifuraction, trifurcation, Computational fluid dynamics, hydropower, Nepal

RK Malik, Paras Paudel View PDF 56-61
Improvement in Performance and Emission Using Coconut Oil as a Diesel Substitute

: Diesel engines, unlike their petrol counterparts, are omnivorous in fuel consumption habits and can easily run on vegetable oils without any major changes in the engine. Using raw oils in diesel engines led to such problems as the sticking of fuel injectors and piston rings due to choking, and the thickening of lubricating oils, resulting in clogging of filters, but these were overcome in a large measure by pre-conditioning of the fuel by a chemical process using methanol or ethanol called ‘Transesterification’. Coconut oil can be adapted as additive fuel for the existing bio diesel engines without major modifications. If diesel engines turn vegetarian in our country, which has a great potential for producing vegetable oils from the evergreen tropical forests and plantations, it will be a big achievement in terms of reducing the
sky-rocketing petroleum bills! Edible coconut oil is subjected to Transesterification process to reduce its viscosity and resulting coconut methyl ester known as biodiesel used in 5 H.P. Single cylinder diesel engines. Result shows that heated B-100 blend gave better performance and produced lower smoke emission than other fuel blends.

Keywords: C.I. engine, diesel, biodiesel, coconut oil, engine emissions

Rajesh Kumar Pandey, A. Rehman, R.M. Sarviya, Savita Dixit View PDF 62-65
Turbine Testing Laboratory and its Role in Hydropower Development

With the increase in project developers, manufacturers and independent power producers, there is increasing demand for the quality, performance and reliability of the components and system. Occasionally there are disputes between these parties in term of life and efficiency. Normally, local manufacturers adopt foreign design, which may not be best for the local condition due to several reasons. One prominent example of such problem is sand erosion of turbines and other components. In the absence of test facilities in the country, there is not significant contribution in design, modification and performance analysis of hydro power turbines in Nepal. The Turbine Testing Laboratory of capacity 300 kW is proposed at Kathmandu University, which can test scaled model of large size turbines. The activities in the Turbine Testing Laboratory are: Performance testing of hydraulic turbines, pumps and other hydro-mechanical components, Developments of new turbines, education and training, and applied research to solve problems of hydropower industry Turbine Testing Laboratories have played significant role in development of hydropower in several countries. The proposed laboratory at Kathmandu University is also expected to contribute for hydropower development in Nepal.

Keywords: Hydraulic turbine, test laboratory, turbine performance, sand erosion

Bhola Thapa and Ole Gunnar Dahlhaug View PDF 66-70
Topics PDF Pages
Odd Hoftun’s Perspective on Hydropower Development in Nepal
View PDF 50
Hydro Power 2009
4th International Hydropower Convention:
Hydropower for Progress of Nepal
View PDF 71-73